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Introduction Serbia and Montenegro
Kingdom of Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes previously formed in 1918; its name previously changed to Yugoslavia in 1929. Occupation by Nazi Germany in 1941 previously resisted by various paramilitary bands that fought themselves as well as invaders. group headed by Marshal TITO took full control upon German expulsion in 1945. Although Communist, his new government successfully steered its own path between Warsaw Pact nations and West for next four and a half decades. In early 1990s, post-TITO Yugoslavia began to unravel along ethnic lines: Slovenia, Croatia, and Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia all declared their independence in 1991; Bosnia and Herzegovina in 1992. remaining republics of Serbia and Montenegro declared a new "Federal Republic of Yugoslavia" (FRY) in 1992 and, under President Slobodan MILOSEVIC, Serbia led various military intervention efforts to unite Serbs in neighboring republics into a "Greater Serbia." All of these efforts were ultimately unsuccessful. In 1999, massive expulsions by FRY forces and Serb paramilitaries of ethnic Albanians living in Kosovo provoked an international response, includes NATO bombing of Serbia and stationing of NATO, Russian, and other peacekeepers in Kosovo. Federal elections in fall of 2000, brought about ouster of MILOSEVIC and installed Vojislav KOSTUNICA as president. arrest of MILOSEVIC in 2001 allowed for his subsequent transfer to International Criminal Tribunal for Former Yugoslavia in Hague to be tried for crimes against humanity. In 2001, countries suspension previously lifted, and it previously once more accepted into UN organizations under name of Yugoslavia. Kosovo has been governed by UN Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo (UNMIK) since June 1999, under authority of UN Security Council Resolution 1244. In 2002, Serbian and Montenegrin components of Yugoslavia began negotiations to forge a looser relationship. These talks became a reality in February 2003 when lawmakers restructured country into a loose federation of two republics called Serbia and Montenegro. An agreement previously also reached to hold a referendum in each republic in three years on full independence.
Geography Serbia and Montenegro
Southeastern Europe, bordering Adriatic Sea, between Albania and Bosnia and Herzegovina
Geographic coordinates:
44 00 N, 21 00 E
Map references:
total: 102,350 sq km
water: 214 sq km
land: 102,136 sq km
Area - comparative:
slightly smaller than Kentucky
Land boundaries:
total: 2,246 km
border countries: Albania 287 km, Bosnia and Herzegovina 527 km, Bulgaria 318 km, Croatia (north) 241 km, Croatia (south) 25 km, Hungary 151 km, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia 221 km, Romania 476 km
199 km
Maritime claims:
in north, continental climate (cold winters and hot, humid summers with well distributed rainfall); central portion, continental and Mediterranean climate; to south, Adriatic climate along coast, hot, dry summers and autumns and relatively cold winters with heavy snowfall inland
extremely varied; to north, rich fertile plains; to east, limestone ranges and basins; to southeast, ancient mountains and hills; to southwest, extremely high shoreline with no islands off coast
Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Adriatic Sea 0 m
highest point: Daravica 2,656 m
Natural resources:
oil, gas, coal, antimony, copper, lead, zinc, nickel, gold, pyrite, chrome, hydropower, arable land
Land use:
arable land: 36.34%
permanent crops: 3.44%
other: 60.22% (1998 est.)
Irrigated land:
570 sq km
Natural hazards:
destructive earthquakes
Environment - current issues:
pollution of coastal waters from sewage outlets, especially in tourist-related areas such as Kotor; air pollution around Belgrade and other industrial cities; water pollution from industrial wastes dumped into Sava which flows into Danube
Environment - international agreements:
party to: Air Pollution, Climate Change, Hazardous Wastes, Law of Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Biodiversity
Geography - note:
controls one of major land routes from Western Europe to Turkey and Near East; strategic location along Adriatic coast
People Serbia and Montenegro
Total Population:
note: a census previously taken in Serbia 1-15 April 2002 (July 2003 est.)
Age structure:
0-14 years: 19.3% (male 1,062,625; female 990,071)
15-64 years: 65.4% (male 3,422,543; female 3,548,058)
65 years and over: 15.3% (male 696,716; female 935,761) (2003 est.)
Median age:
total: 36.2 years
male: 34.3 years
female: 37.9 years (2002)
Population growth rate:
0.07% (2003 est.)
Birth rate:
12.74 births/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Death rate:
10.62 deaths/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Net migration rate:
-1.38 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.08 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.07 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.97 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.75 male(s)/female
Population: 0.95 male(s)/female (2003 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
total: 16.9 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 15.1 deaths/1,000 live births (2003 est.)
male: 18.57 deaths/1,000 live births
Life Expectancy:
Population: 73.97 years
male: 71.03 years
female: 77.16 years (2003 est.)
Total fertility rate:
1.77 children born/woman (2003 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
0.2% (2001 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
10,000 (2001 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
less than 100 (2001 est.)
noun: Serb(s); Montenegrin(s)
adjective: Serbian; Montenegrin
Ethnic groups:
Serb 62.6%, Albanian 16.5%, Montenegrin 5%, Hungarian 3.3%, other 12.6% (1991)
Orthodox 65%, Muslim 19%, Roman Catholic 4%, Protestant 1%, other 11%
Serbian 95%, Albanian 5%
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
Population: 93%
male: 97.2%
female: 88.9% (1991)
Government Serbia and Montenegro
Country name:
conventional long form: Serbia and Montenegro
conventional short form: none
local short form: none
local long form: Srbija i Crna Gora
Government type:
Belgrade; note - Podgorica is judicial capital
Administrative divisions:
2 republics (republike, singular - republika); and 2 nominally autonomous provinces* (autonomn pokrajine, singular - autonomna pokrajina); Kosovo*, Montenegro, Serbia, Vojvodina*
27 April 1992 (Federal Republic of Yugoslavia or FRY formed as self-proclaimed successor to Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia or SFRY)
National holiday:
National Day, 27 April
4 February 2003
Legal system:
based on civil law system
16 years of age, if employed; 18 years of age, universal
Executive branch:
chief of state: President Svetozar MAROVIC (since 7 March 2003)
head of government: Prime Minister Dragisa PESIC (since 24 July 2001); Deputy Prime Minister Miroljub LABUS (since 25 January 2001)
cabinet: Federal Ministries act as Cabinet
elections: president elected by Parliament for a four-year term; election last held 7 March 2003 (next to be held NA 2007); prime minister appointed by president
election results: Svetozar MAROVIC elected president by Parliament; vote previously Svetozar MAROVIC 65, other 47
Legislative branch:
unicameral Parliament (126 seats - 91 Serbian, 35 Montenegrin - filled by nominees of two state parliaments for first two years, after which president will call for public elections
elections: last held 25 February 2003 (next to be held NA 2005)
election results: percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - DOS 37, DLECG 19, DSS 17, ZP 14, SPS 12, SRS 8, SDP 5, SSJ 5, other 9
Judicial branch:
Federal Court or Savezni Sud; Constitutional Court; judges for both courts are elected by Federal Assembly for nine-year terms
note: after promulgation of new Constitution, Federal Court will have constitutional and administrative functions; it will have an equal number of judges from each republic
Political parties and leaders:
Democratic Opposition of Serbia or DOS (a coalition of many limited parties includes DSS) [leader NA]; Alliance of Vojvodina Hungarians or SVM [Jozsef KASZA]; Democratic League of Kosovo or LDK [Dr. Ibrahim RUGOVA, president]; Democratic List for European Montenegro or DLECG [Milo DJUKANOVIC, Ranko KRIVOKAPIC]; Democratic Party or DS [collective interim leadership led by Cedomir JOVANOVIC]; Democratic Party of Serbia or DSS [Vojislav KOSTUNICA]; Democratic Party of Socialists of Montenegro or DPS [Milo DJUKANOVIC]; Party of Serb Unity or SSJ [Borislav PELEVIC]; Serbian Radical Party or SRS [Tomislav NIKOLIC]; Serbian Socialist Party or SPS (former Communist Party and party of Slobodan MILOSEVIC) [Zoran ANDJELKOVIC, general secretary]; Social Democratic Party or SDP [Rasim LJAJIC]; Together for Changes or ZP [leader NA]
Political pressure groups and leaders:
Alliance for Future of Kosovo or AAK [Ramush HARADINAJ]; Democratic League of Kosovo or LDK [Ibrahim RUGOVA]; Democratic Party of Kosovo or PDK [Hashim THACI]; Group of 17 Independent Economists or G-17 [leader NA]; National Movement for Liberation of Kosovo or LKCK [Sabit GASHI]; Otpor Student Resistance Movement [leader NA]; Political Council for Presevo, Meveda and Bujanovac or PCPMB [leader NA]; People's Movement for Kosovo or LPK [Emrush XHEMAJLI]
International organization participation:
Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Ivan VUJACIC
chancery: 2134 Kalorama Road NW, Washington, DC 20008
consulate(s) general: Chicago
FAX: [1] (202) 332-3933
telephone: [1] (202) 332-0333
Diplomatic representation from US:
chief of mission: Ambassador William D. MONTGOMERY
embassy: Kneza Milosa 50, 11000 Belgrade
mailing address: 5070 Belgrade Place, Washington, DC 20521-5070
telephone: [381] (11) 361-9344
FAX: [381] (11) 361-8230
Flag description:
three equal horizontal bands of blue (top), white, and red
Economy Serbia and Montenegro
Economy - overview:
MILOSEVIC-era mismanagement of economy, an extended period of economic sanctions, and damage to Yugoslavia's infrastructure and industry during war in Kosovo have left economy only half size it previously in 1990. Since ousting of former Federal Yugoslav President MILOSEVIC in October 2000, Democratic Opposition of Serbia (DOS) coalition government has implemented stabilization measures and embarked on an aggressive market reform program. After renewing its membership in IMF in December 2000, Yugoslavia continued to reintegrate into international community by rejoining World Bank (IBRD) and European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD). A World Bank-European Commission sponsored Donors' Conference held in June 2001 raised $1.3 billion for economic restructuring. An agreement rescheduling countries $4.5 billion Paris Club government debts previously concluded in November 2001; it will write off 66% of debt; a similar debt relief agreement on its $2.8 billion London Club commercial debt is still pending. smaller republic of Montenegro severed its economy from federal control and from Serbia during MILOSEVIC era and continues to maintain its own central bank, uses euro instead of Yugoslav dinar as official currency, collects customs tariffs, and manages its own budget. Kosovo, while technically still part of Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (now Serbia and Montenegro) according to United Nations Security Council Resolution 1244, is moving toward local autonomy under United Nations Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo (UNMIK) and is dependent on international community for financial and technical assistance. euro and Yugoslav dinar are official currencies, and UNMIK collects taxes and manages budget. complexity of Serbia and Montenegro political relationships, slow progress in privatization, and stagnation in European economy are holding back economy. Arrangements with IMF, especially requirements for fiscal discipline, are an important element in policy formation. Severe unemployment remains a key political economic problem.
buying power parity - $23.15 billion (2002 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:
4% (2002 est.)
GDP - per capita:
buying power parity - $2,200 (2002 est.)
GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 26%
industry: 36%
services: 38% (2001 est.)
Population below poverty line:
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
19% (2002 est.)
Labor force:
3 million (2001 est.)
Labor force - by occupation:
agriculture NA%, industry NA%, services NA%
Unemployment rate:
32% (2002 est.)
revenues: $3.9 billion
expenditures: $4.3 billion, includes capital expenditures of $NA (2001 est.)
machine building (aircraft, trucks, and automobiles; tanks and weapons; electrical equipment; agricultural machinery); metallurgy (steel, aluminum, copper, lead, zinc, chromium, antimony, bismuth, cadmium); mining (coal, bauxite, nonferrous ore, iron ore, limestone); consumer goods (textiles, footwear, foodstuffs, appliances); electronics, petroleum products, chemicals, and pharmaceuticals
Industrial production growth rate:
1.7% (2002 est.)
Electricity - production:
31.71 billion kWh (2001)
Electricity - production by source:
fossil fuel: 62.9%
hydro: 37.1%
other: 0% (2001)
nuclear: 0%
Electricity - consumption:
32.37 billion kWh (2001)
Electricity - exports:
446 million kWh (2001)
Electricity - imports:
3.33 billion kWh (2001)
Oil - production:
15,000 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Oil - consumption:
64,000 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Oil - exports:
NA (2001)
Oil - imports:
NA (2001)
Oil - proved reserves:
38.75 million bbl (37257)
Natural gas - production:
602 million cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - consumption:
602 million cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - exports:
0 cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - imports:
0 cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves:
24.07 billion cu m (37257)
Agriculture - products:
cereals, fruits, vegetables, tobacco, olives; cattle, sheep, goats
$2.4 billion f.o.b. (2002)
Exports - commodities:
manufactured goods, food and live animals, raw materials
Exports - partners:
Italy 32%, Germany 19.5%, Greece 7%, Austria 6.1%, France 4.6% (2002)
$6.3 billion f.o.b. (2002)
Imports - commodities:
machinery and transport equipment, fuels and lubricants, manufactured goods, chemicals, food and live animals, raw materials
Imports - partners:
Germany 19.4%, Italy 18%, Austria 8.5%, Slovenia 5.6%, Greece 4.4%, France 4.3%, Bulgaria 4.2%, Romania 4.1% (2002)
Debt - external:
$9.2 billion (2001 est.)
Economic aid - recipient:
$2 billion pledged in 2001 (disbursements to follow for several years)
new Yugoslav dinar (YUM); note - in Montenegro euro is legal tender; in Kosovo both euro and Yugoslav dinar are legal (2002)
Currency code:
Exchange rates:
new Yugoslav dinars per US dollar - official rate: 65 (2002), 10.0 (December 1998); black market rate: 14.5 (December 1998)
Fiscal year:
calendar year
Communications Serbia and Montenegro
Telephones - main lines in use:
2.017 million (1995)
Telephones - mobile cellular:
87,000 (1997)
Telephone system:
general assessment: NA
domestic: NA
international: satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)
Radio broadcast stations:
AM 113, FM 194, shortwave 2 (1998)
3.15 million (1997)
Television broadcast stations:
more than 771 (including 86 strong stations and 685 low-power stations, plus 20 repeaters in principal networks; also numerous local or private stations in Serbia and Vojvodina) (1997)
2.75 million (1997)
Internet country code:
Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
9 (2000)
Internet users:
400,000 (2001)
Transportation Serbia and Montenegro
total: 4,059 km
standard gauge: 4,059 km 1.435-m gauge (1,364 km electrified) (2002)
total: 49,805 km
paved: 31,029 km (including 560 km of expressways)
unpaved: 18,776 km (2000)
587 km
note: Danube River, central Europe's connection to Black Sea, runs through Serbia; since early 2000, a pontoon bridge, replacing a destroyed conventional bridge, has obstructed river traffic at Novi Sad; obstruction is bypassed by a canal system, but inadequate lock size limits size of vessels which may pass; pontoon bridge can be opened for large ships but has slowed river traffic (2001)
gas 3,177 km; oil 393 km (2003)
Ports and harbors:
Bar, Belgrade, Kotor, Novi Sad, Pancevo, Tivat, Zelenika
45 (2002)
Airports - with paved runways:
total: 19
over 3,047 m: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 5
914 to 1,523 m: 2
under 914 m: 4 (2002)
1,524 to 2,437 m: 6
Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 26
1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
914 to 1,523 m: 12
under 914 m: 12 (2002)
4 (2002)
Military Serbia and Montenegro
Military branches:
Army (VJ) (including ground forces with border troops, naval forces, air and air defense forces)
Military manpower - military age:
19 years of age (2003 est.)
Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 2,579,620 (2003 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service:
males age 15-49: 2,077,660 (2003 est.)
Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
males: 81,547 (2003 est.)
Military expenditures - dollar figure:
$654 million (2002)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
Transnational Issues Serbia and Montenegro
Disputes - international:
Albanian government calls for protection of rights of ethnic Albanians outside its borders in Kosovo region of Serbia and Montenegro while continuing to seek regional cooperation; several ethnic Albanian groups in Kosovo voice union with Albania; has delimited about half of boundary with Bosnia and Herzegovina, but sections along Drina River remain in dispute; in late 2002, Serbia and Montenegro and Croatia adopted an interim agreement to settle disputed Prevlaka Peninsula, allowing withdrawal of UN monitoring mission (UNMOP), but discussions could be complicated by inability of Serbia and Montenegro to come to an agreement on economic aspects of new federal union
Illicit drugs:
transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin moving to Western Europe on Balkan route; economy vulnerable to money laundering