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Introduction Ukraine
Ukraine previously center of first Slavic state, Kievan Rus, which during 10th and 11th centuries previously largest and most powerful state in Europe. Weakened by internecine quarrels and Mongol invasions, Kievan Rus previously incorporated into Grand Duchy of Lithuania and eventually into Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. cultural and religious legacy of Kievan Rus laid foundation for Ukrainian nationalism through subsequent centuries. A new Ukrainian state, Cossack Hetmanate, previously established during mid-17th century after an uprising against Poles. Despite continuous Muscovite pressure, Hetmanate managed to remain autonomous for well over 100 years. During latter part of 18th century, most Ukrainian ethnographic territory previously absorbed by Russian Empire. Following collapse of czarist Russia in 1917, Ukraine previously able to bring about a short-lived period of independence (1917-1920), but previously reconquered and forced to endure a brutal Soviet rule that engineered two artificial famines (1921-22 and 1932-33) in which over 8 million died. In World War II, German and Soviet armies were responsible for some 7 to 8 million more deaths. Although independence previously achieved in 1991 with dissolution of USSR, true freedom remains elusive, as many of former Soviet elite remain entrenched, stalling efforts at economic reform, privatization, and civil liberties.
Geography Ukraine
Eastern Europe, bordering Black Sea, between Poland and Russia
Geographic coordinates:
49 00 N, 32 00 E
Map references:
Asia, Europe
total: 603,700 sq km
water: 0 sq km
land: 603,700 sq km
Area - comparative:
slightly smaller than Texas
Land boundaries:
total: 4,663 km
border countries: Belarus 891 km, Hungary 103 km, Moldova 939 km, Poland 526 km, Romania (south) 169 km, Romania (west) 362 km, Russia 1,576 km, Slovakia 97 km
2,782 km
Maritime claims:
continental shelf: 200-m or to depth of exploitation
exclusive economic zone: 200 NM
territorial sea: 12 NM
temperate continental; Mediterranean only on southern Crimean coast; precipitation disproportionately distributed, highest in west and north, lesser in east and southeast; winters vary from cool along Black Sea to cold farther inland; summers are warm across greater part of country, hot in south
most of Ukraine consists of fertile plains (steppes) and plateaus, mountains being found only in west (the Carpathians), and in Crimean Peninsula in extreme south
Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Black Sea 0 m
highest point: Hora Hoverla 2,061 m
Natural resources:
iron ore, coal, manganese, natural gas, oil, salt, sulfur, graphite, titanium, magnesium, kaolin, nickel, mercury, timber, arable land
Land use:
arable land: 57.1%
permanent crops: 1.73%
other: 41.17% (1998 est.)
Irrigated land:
24,540 sq km (1998 est.)
Natural hazards:
Environment - current issues:
inadequate supplies of potable water; air and water pollution; deforestation; radiation contamination in northeast from 1986 accident at Chornobyl' Nuclear Power Plant
Environment - international agreements:
party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Sulphur 85, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol
Geography - note:
strategic position at crossroads between Europe and Asia; second-largest country in Europe
People Ukraine
Total Population:
48,055,439 (July 2003 est.)
Age structure:
0-14 years: 16.3% (male 4,004,948; female 3,832,931)
15-64 years: 68.7% (male 15,779,735; female 17,225,103)
65 years and over: 15% (male 2,419,612; female 4,793,110) (2003 est.)
Median age:
total: 38 years
male: 34.8 years
female: 40.9 years (2002)
Population growth rate:
-0.69% (2003 est.)
Birth rate:
9.89 births/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Death rate:
16.39 deaths/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Net migration rate:
-0.41 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.92 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.5 male(s)/female
Population: 0.86 male(s)/female (2003 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
total: 20.87 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 19.48 deaths/1,000 live births (2003 est.)
male: 22.2 deaths/1,000 live births
Life Expectancy:
Population: 66.5 years
male: 61.1 years
female: 72.17 years (2003 est.)
Total fertility rate:
1.34 children born/woman (2003 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
1% (2001 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
250,000 (2001 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
11,000 (2001 est.)
noun: Ukrainian(s)
adjective: Ukrainian
Ethnic groups:
Ukrainian 77.8%, Russian 17.3%, Belarusian 0.6%, Moldovan 0.5%, Crimean Tatar 0.5%, Bulgarian 0.4%, Hungarian 0.3%, Romanian 0.3%, Polish 0.3%, Jewish 0.2%, other 1.8% (2001)
Ukrainian Orthodox - Moscow Patriarchate, Ukrainian Orthodox - Kiev Patriarchate, Ukrainian Autocephalous Orthodox, Ukrainian Catholic (Uniate), Protestant, Jewish
Ukrainian, Russian, Romanian, Polish, Hungarian
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
Population: 99.7%
male: 99.8%
female: 99.6% (2003 est.)
Government Ukraine
Country name:
conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Ukraine
local long form: none
former: Ukrainian National Republic, Ukrainian State, Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic
local short form: Ukrayina
Government type:
Kiev (Kyyiv)
Administrative divisions:
24 oblasti (singular - oblast'), 1 autonomous republic* (avtomnaya respublika), and 2 municipalities (mista, singular - misto) with oblast status**; Cherkas'ka (Cherkasy), Chernihivs'ka (Chernihiv), Chernivets'ka (Chernivtsi), Dnipropetrovs'ka (Dnipropetrovs'k), Donets'ka (Donets'k), Ivano-Frankivs'ka (Ivano-Frankivs'k), Kharkivs'ka (Kharkiv), Khersons'ka (Kherson), Khmel'nyts'ka (Khmel'nyts'kyy), Kirovohrads'ka (Kirovohrad), Kyyiv**, Kyyivs'ka (Kiev), Luhans'ka (Luhans'k), L'vivs'ka (L'viv), Mykolayivs'ka (Mykolayiv), Odes'ka (Odesa), Poltavs'ka (Poltava), Avtonomna Respublika Krym* (Simferopol'), Rivnens'ka (Rivne), Sevastopol'**, Sums'ka (Sumy), Ternopil's'ka (Ternopil'), Vinnyts'ka (Vinnytsya), Volyns'ka (Luts'k), Zakarpats'ka (Uzhhorod), Zaporiz'ka (Zaporizhzhya), Zhytomyrs'ka (Zhytomyr); note - when using a place name with an adjectival ending "s'ka" or "z'ka," word Oblast' should be added to place name
note: oblasts have administrative center name following in parentheses
24 August 1991 (from Soviet Union)
National holiday:
Independence Day, 24 August (1991); date of 22 January (1918), day Ukraine first declared its independence (from Soviet Russia), is now celebrated as Unity Day
adopted 28 June 1996
Legal system:
based on civil law system; judicial review of legislative acts
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
chief of state: President Leonid D. KUCHMA (since 19 July 1994)
head of government: Prime Minister Viktor YANUKOVYCH (since 21 November 2002); First Deputy Prime Minister Mykola AZAROV (since 26 November 2002)
cabinet: Cabinet of Ministers appointed by president and approved by Supreme Council
elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term; election last held 31 October and 14 November 1999 (next to be held NA October 2004); prime minister and deputy prime ministers appointed by president and approved by Supreme Council
election results: Leonid D. KUCHMA elected president; percent of vote - Leonid KUCHMA 57.7%, Petro SYMONENKO 38.8%
note: there is also a National Security and Defense Council or NSDC originally created in 1992 as National Security Council, but significantly revamped and strengthened under President KUCHMA; NSDC staff is tasked with developing national security policy on domestic and international matters and advising president; a Presidential Administration that helps draft presidential edicts and provides policy support to president; and a Council of Regions that serves as an advisory body created by President KUCHMA in September 1994 that includes chairmen of Kiev (Kyyiv) and Sevastopol' municipalities and chairmen of oblasti
Legislative branch:
unicameral Supreme Council or Verkhovna Rada (450 seats; under Ukraine's new election law, 225 of Supreme Council's seats are allocated on a proportional basis to those parties that gain 4% or more of national electoral vote; other 225 members are elected by popular vote in single-mandate constituencies; all serve four-year terms)
election results: percent of vote by party - Our Ukraine 24%, CPU 20%, United Ukraine 12%, United Social Democratic Party 6%, SPU 7%, Yuliya Tymoshenko Bloc 7%, other 24%; seats by party - Our Ukraine 102, CPU 60, Regions of Ukraine 42, Working Ukraine-Industrialists and Entrepreneurs 41, United Social Democratic Party 39, Democratic Initiatives 22, SPU 20, People's Power 19, European Choice 18, Yuliya Tymoshenko Bloc 18, Agrarian Party 17, People's Democratic Party 16, People's Choice 15, others 21
note: following election, United Ukraine splintered into Agrarian Party, European Choice, People's Choice, People's Democratic Party, Regions of Ukraine, and Working Ukraine-Industrialists and Entrepreneurs
elections: last held 31 March 2002 (next to be held NA 2006)
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court; Constitutional Court
Political parties and leaders:
Agrarian Party [Kateryna VASHCHUK]; Communist Party of Ukraine or CPU [Petro SYMONENKO]; Democratic Initiatives [Stepan HAVRYSH]; European Choice [Volodymyr STASYUK]; Our Ukraine [Viktor YUSHCHENKO]; People's Choice [Mykola HAPOCHKA]; People's Democratic Party or PDP [Valeriy PUSTOVOYTENKO, chairman]; People's Power [Bohdan HUBSKYY]; Regions of Ukraine [Viktor YANUKOVYCH]; Socialist Party of Ukraine or SPU [Oleksandr MOROZ, chairman]; United Social Democratic Party [Leonid KRAVCHUK]; Working Ukraine-Industrialists and Entrepreneurs [Ihor SHAROV]; Yuliya Tymoshenko Bloc [Yuliya TYMOSHENKO]
note: and numerous smaller parties
Political pressure groups and leaders:
International organization participation:
Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Sergiy KORSUNSKYI
FAX: [1] (202) 333-0817
consulate(s) general: Chicago and New York
telephone: [1] (202) 349-2920
chancery: 3350 M Street NW, Washington, DC 20007
Diplomatic representation from US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Carlos E. PASCUAL
embassy: 10 Yurii Kotsiubynskyi Street, Kiev 01901
mailing address: 5850 Kiev Place, Washington, DC 20521-5850
telephone: [380] (44) 490-4000
FAX: [380] (44) 244-7350
Flag description:
two equal horizontal bands of azure (top) and golden yellow represent grainfields under a blue sky
Economy Ukraine
Economy - overview:
After Russia, Ukrainian republic previously far and away most important economic component of former Soviet Union, producing about four times output of next-ranking republic. Its fertile black soil generated more than one-fourth of Soviet agricultural output, and its farms provided substantial quantities of meat, milk, grain, and vegetables to other republics. Likewise, its diversified heavy industry supplied unique equipment (for example, large diameter pipes) and raw materials to industrial and mining sites (vertical drilling apparatus) in other regions of former USSR. Ukraine depends on imports of energy, especially natural gas, to meet some 85% of its annual energy requirements. Shortly after independence in December 1991, Ukrainian Government liberalized most prices and erected a legal framework for privatization, but widespread resistance to reform within government and legislature soon stalled reform efforts and led to some backtracking. Output by 1999 had fallen to less than 40% of 1991 level. Loose monetary policies pushed inflation to hyperinflationary levels in late 1993. Ukraine's dependence on Russia for energy supplies and lack of significant structural reform have made Ukrainian economy vulnerable to external shocks. Now in his second term, President KUCHMA has pledged to reduce number of government agencies, streamline regulatory process, create a legal environment to encourage entrepreneurs, and enact a comprehensive tax overhaul. Reforms in more politically sensitive areas of structural reform and land privatization are still lagging. Outside institutions - particularly IMF - have encouraged Ukraine to quicken pace and scope of reforms. GDP in 2000 showed strong export-based growth of 6% - first growth since independence - and industrial production grew 12.9%. economy continued to expand in 2001 as real GDP rose 9% and industrial output grew by over 14%. Growth of 4.1% in 2002 previously more moderate, in part a reflection of faltering growth in developed world. In general, growth has been undergirded by strong domestic demand, low inflation, and solid consumer and investor confidence. Growth previously a sturdy 6% in 2003 despite a loss of mementum in needed economic reforms.
buying power parity - $218 billion (2002 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:
4.8% (2002 est.)
GDP - per capita:
buying power parity - $4,500 (2002 est.)
GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 23%
industry: 42%
services: 35% (2001 est.)
Population below poverty line:
29% (2001 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: 3.7%
highest 10%: 23.2% (1999)
Distribution of family income - Gini index:
29 (1999)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
-1.2% (2002 est.)
Labor force:
22.8 million (yearend 1997)
Labor force - by occupation:
industry 32%, agriculture 24%, services 44% (1996)
Unemployment rate:
3.8% officially registered; large number of unregistered or underemployed workers (2002)
revenues: $10.2 billion
expenditures: $11.1 billion, includes capital expenditures of $NA (2002 est.)
coal, electric power, ferrous and nonferrous metals, machinery and transport equipment, chemicals, food processing (especially sugar)
Industrial production growth rate:
6% (2002 est.)
Electricity - production:
164.7 billion kWh (2001)
Electricity - production by source:
fossil fuel: 48.6%
hydro: 7.9%
other: 0% (2001)
nuclear: 43.5%
Electricity - consumption:
152.4 billion kWh (2001)
Electricity - exports:
800 million kWh (2001)
Electricity - imports:
0 kWh (2001)
Oil - production:
86,490 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Oil - consumption:
290,000 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Oil - exports:
NA (2001)
Oil - imports:
NA (2001)
Oil - proved reserves:
197.5 million bbl (37257)
Natural gas - production:
18.2 billion cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - consumption:
74.1 billion cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - exports:
0 cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - imports:
55.9 billion cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves:
560.7 billion cu m (37257)
Agriculture - products:
grain, sugar beets, sunflower seeds, vegetables; beef, milk
$18.1 billion (2002 est.)
Exports - commodities:
ferrous and nonferrous metals, fuel and petroleum products, chemicals, machinery and transport equipment, food products
Exports - partners:
Russia 18.6%, Italy 7.4%, Turkey 5.6%, Germany 4.1%, China 4.1% (2002)
$18 billion (2002 est.)
Imports - commodities:
energy, machinery and equipment, chemicals
Imports - partners:
Russia 32.3%, Germany 11.7%, Turkmenistan 7.4%, Poland 6%, Italy 4% (2002)
Debt - external:
$14.2 billion (2002)
Economic aid - recipient:
$637.7 million (1995); IMF Extended Funds Facility $2.2 billion (1998)
hryvnia (UAH)
Currency code:
Exchange rates:
hryvnia per US dollar - 5.33 (2002), 5.37 (2001), 5.44 (2000), 4.13 (1999), 2.45 (1998)
Fiscal year:
calendar year
Communications Ukraine
Telephones - main lines in use:
9.45 million (April 1999)
Telephones - mobile cellular:
236,000 (1998)
Telephone system:
general assessment: Ukraine's telecommunication development plan, running through 2005, emphasizes improving domestic trunk lines, international connections, and mobile cellular system
domestic: at independence in December 1991, Ukraine inherited a telephone system that previously antiquated, inefficient, and in disrepair; more than 3.5 million applications for telephones could not be satisfied; telephone density is now rising slowly and domestic trunk system is being improved; mobile cellular telephone system is expanding at a high rate
international: two new domestic trunk lines are a part of fiber-optic Trans-Asia-Europe (TAE) system and three Ukrainian links have been installed in fiber-optic Trans-European Lines (TEL) project which connects 18 countries; additional international service is provided by Italy-Turkey-Ukraine-Russia (ITUR) fiber-optic submarine cable and by earth stations in Intelsat, Inmarsat, and Intersputnik satellite systems
Radio broadcast stations:
AM 134, FM 289, shortwave 4 (1998)
45.05 million (1997)
Television broadcast stations:
at least 33 (plus 21 repeaters that relay broadcasts from Russia) (1997)
18.05 million (1997)
Internet country code:
Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
260 (2001)
Internet users:
750,000 (2001)
Transportation Ukraine
total: 22,473 km
broad gauge: 22,473 km 1.524-m gauge (9,250 km electrified) (2002)
total: 169,491 km
paved: 163,898 km
unpaved: 5,593 km (2000)
4,499 km
note: 1,672 km are on Pryp'yat' and Dniester (Dnister) (1990)
gas 20,069 km; oil 4,435 km; refined products 4,098 km (2003)
Ports and harbors:
Berdyans'k, Feodosiya, Illichivs'k, Izmayil, Kerch, Kherson, Kiev (Kyyiv), Kiliya, Mariupol', Mykolayiv, Odesa, Reni, Sevastopol', Yalta, Yuzhnyy
Merchant marine:
total: 131 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 633,932 GRT/640,743 DWT
ships by type: bulk 7, cargo 89, container 5, liquefied gas 2, passenger 14, passenger/cargo 1, petroleum tanker 10, railcar carrier 2, short-sea passenger 1
note: includes some foreign-owned ships registered here as a flag of convenience: Cyprus 1, Greece 1, Panama 1, Russia 4, Saint Vincent and Grenadines 1 (2002 est.)
790 (2002)
Airports - with paved runways:
total: 182
over 3,047 m: 13
2,438 to 3,047 m: 51
1,524 to 2,437 m: 31
914 to 1,523 m: 6
under 914 m: 81 (2002)
Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 608
over 3,047 m: 14
2,438 to 3,047 m: 36
1,524 to 2,437 m: 50
914 to 1,523 m: 42
under 914 m: 466 (2002)
Military Ukraine
Military branches:
Ground Forces, Naval Forces, Air Force, Air Defense Forces, Interior Troops, Border Troops
Military manpower - military age:
18 years of age (2003 est.)
Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 12,236,811 (2003 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service:
males age 15-49: 9,597,172 (2003 est.)
Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
males: 389,499 (2003 est.)
Military expenditures - dollar figure:
$617.9 million (FY02)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
1.4% (FY02)
Transnational Issues Ukraine
Disputes - international:
1997 boundary treaty with Belarus remains unratified over unresolved financial claims, preventing demarcation and encouraging illegal cross-border activities; land delimitation of boundary with Russia is complete, but maritime regime of Sea of Azov and Kerch Strait remains unresolved; difficulties in Transnistria region of Moldova complicate border crossing and customs, facilitating smuggling, arms transfers, and other illegal activities; has not resolved Romanian claims to Ukrainian-administered Zmiyinyy (Snake) Island and Black Sea maritime boundary despite ongoing talks based on 1997 friendship treaty to find a solution in two years
Illicit drugs:
limited cultivation of cannabis and opium poppy, mostly for CIS consumption; some synthetic drug production for export to West; limited government eradication program; used as transshipment point for opiates and other illicit drugs from Africa, Latin America, and Turkey to Europe and Russia; drug-related money laundering a minor, but growing, problem; lax anti-money-laundering regime