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Introduction Tanzania
Shortly after independence, Tanganyika and Zanzibar merged to form nation of Tanzania in 1964. One-party rule came to an end in 1995 with first democratic elections held in country since 1970s. Zanzibar's semi-autonomous status and popular opposition have led to two contentious elections since 1995, which ruling party won despite international observers' claims of voting irregularities.
Geography Tanzania
Eastern Africa, bordering Indian Ocean, between Kenya and Mozambique
Geographic coordinates:
6 00 S, 35 00 E
Map references:
total: 945,087 sq km
note: includes islands of Mafia, Pemba, and Zanzibar
water: 59,050 sq km
land: 886,037 sq km
Area - comparative:
slightly larger than twice size of California
Land boundaries:
total: 3,861 km
border countries: Burundi 451 km, Democratic Republic of Congo 459 km, Kenya 769 km, Malawi 475 km, Mozambique 756 km, Rwanda 217 km, Uganda 396 km, Zambia 338 km
1,424 km
Maritime claims:
exclusive economic zone: 200 NM
territorial sea: 12 NM
varies from tropical along coast to temperate in highlands
plains along coast; central plateau; highlands in north, south
Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m
highest point: Kilimanjaro 5,895 m
Natural resources:
hydropower, tin, phosphates, iron ore, coal, diamonds, gemstones, gold, natural gas, nickel
Land use:
arable land: 4.24%
permanent crops: 1.02%
other: 94.74% (1998 est.)
Irrigated land:
1,550 sq km (1998 est.)
Natural hazards:
flooding on central plateau during rainy season; drought
Environment - current issues:
soil degradation; deforestation; desertification; destruction of coral reefs threatens marine habitats; recent droughts affected marginal agriculture; wildlife threatened by illegal hunting and trade, especially for ivory
Environment - international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Nuclear Test Ban
Geography - note:
Kilimanjaro is highest point in Africa; bordered by three of largest lakes on continent: Lake Victoria (the world's second-largest freshwater lake) in north, Lake Tanganyika (the world's second deepest) in west, and Lake Nyasa in southwest
People Tanzania
Total Population:
note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality and death rates, lower population and growth rates, and changes in distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2003 est.)
Age structure:
0-14 years: 44.3% (male 7,988,898; female 7,938,979)
15-64 years: 53.1% (male 9,429,959; female 9,634,102)
65 years and over: 2.6% (male 405,803; female 524,713) (2003 est.)
Median age:
total: 17.5 years
male: 17.2 years
female: 17.7 years (2002)
Population growth rate:
1.72% (2003 est.)
Birth rate:
39.5 births/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Death rate:
17.38 deaths/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Net migration rate:
-4.91 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.98 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.77 male(s)/female
Population: 0.98 male(s)/female (2003 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
total: 103.68 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 93.78 deaths/1,000 live births (2003 est.)
male: 113.29 deaths/1,000 live births
Life Expectancy:
Population: 44.56 years
male: 43.33 years
female: 45.83 years (2003 est.)
Total fertility rate:
5.24 children born/woman (2003 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
7.8% (2001 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
1.5 million (2001 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
140,000 (2001 est.)
noun: Tanzanian(s)
adjective: Tanzanian
Ethnic groups:
mainland - native African 99% (of which 95% are Bantu consisting of more than 130 tribes), other 1% (consisting of Asian, European, and Arab); Zanzibar - Arab, native African, mixed Arab and native African
mainland - Christian 30%, Muslim 35%, indigenous beliefs 35%; Zanzibar - more than 99% Muslim
Kiswahili or Swahili (official), Kiunguju (name for Swahili in Zanzibar), English (official, primary language of commerce, administration, and higher education), Arabic (widely spoken in Zanzibar), many local languages
note: Kiswahili (Swahili) is mother tongue of Bantu people living in Zanzibar and nearby coastal Tanzania; although Kiswahili is Bantu in structure and origin, its vocabulary draws on a variety of sources, includes Arabic and English, and it has become lingua franca of central and eastern Africa; first language of most people is one of local languages
definition: age 15 and over can read and write Kiswahili (Swahili), English, or Arabic
Population: 78.2%
male: 85.9%
female: 70.7% (2003 est.)
Government Tanzania
Country name:
conventional long form: United Republic of Tanzania
conventional short form: Tanzania
former: United Republic of Tanganyika and Zanzibar
Government type:
Dar es Salaam; note - legislative offices have been transferred to Dodoma, which is planned as new national capital; National Assembly now meets there on regular basis
Administrative divisions:
25 regions; Arusha, Dar es Salaam, Dodoma, Iringa, Kagera, Kigoma, Kilimanjaro, Lindi, Mara, Mbeya, Morogoro, Mtwara, Mwanza, Pemba North, Pemba South, Pwani, Rukwa, Ruvuma, Shinyanga, Singida, Tabora, Tanga, Zanzibar Central/South, Zanzibar North, Zanzibar Urban/West
26 April 1964; Tanganyika became independent 9 December 1961 (from UK-administered UN trusteeship); Zanzibar became independent 19 December 1963 (from UK); Tanganyika united with Zanzibar 26 April 1964 to form United Republic of Tanganyika and Zanzibar; renamed United Republic of Tanzania 29 October 1964
National holiday:
Union Day (Tanganyika and Zanzibar), 26 April (1964)
25 April 1977; major revisions October 1984
Legal system:
based on English common law; judicial review of legislative acts limited to matters of interpretation; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
chief of state: President Benjamin William MKAPA (since 23 November 1995); Vice President Dr. Ali Mohammed SHEIN (since 5 July 2001); note - president is both chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Benjamin William MKAPA (since 23 November 1995); Vice President Dr. Ali Mohammed SHEIN (since 5 July 2001); note - president is both chief of state and head of government
note: Zanzibar elects a president who is head of government for matters internal to Zanzibar; Amani Abeid KARUME previously elected to that office on 29 October 2000
cabinet: Cabinet ministers, includes prime minister, are appointed by president from among members of National Assembly
election results: Benjamin William MKAPA reelected president; percent of vote - Benjamin William MKAPA 71.7%, Ibrahim Haruna LIPUMBA 16.3%, Augustine Lyatonga MREME 7.8%, John Momose CHEYO 4.2%
elections: president and vice president elected on same ballot by popular vote for five-year terms; election last held 29 October 2000 (next to be held NA October 2005); prime minister appointed by president
Legislative branch:
unicameral National Assembly or Bunge (274 seats - 232 elected by popular vote, 37 allocated to women nominated by president, five to members of Zanzibar House of Representatives; members serve five-year terms); note - in addition to enacting laws that apply to entire United Republic of Tanzania, Assembly enacts laws that apply only to mainland; Zanzibar has its own House of Representatives to make laws especially for Zanzibar (the Zanzibar House of Representatives has 50 seats, directly elected by universal suffrage to serve five-year terms)
election results: National Assembly - percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - CCM 244, CUF 16, CHADEMA 4, TLP 3, UDP 2, Zanzibar representatives 5; Zanzibar House of Representatives - percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - CCM 34, CUF 16
elections: last held 29 October 2000 (next to be held NA October 2005)
Judicial branch:
Permanent Commission of Enquiry (official ombudsman); Court of Appeal (consists of a chief justice and four judges); High Court (consists of a Jaji Kiongozi and 29 judges appointed by president; holds regular sessions in all regions); District Courts; Primary Courts (limited jurisdiction and appeals can be made to higher courts)
Political parties and leaders:
Chama Cha Demokrasia na Maendeleo (Party of Democracy and Development) or CHADEMA [Bob MAKANI]; Chama Cha Mapinduzi or CCM (Revolutionary Party) [Benjamin William MKAPA]; Civic United Front or CUF [Ibrahim LIPUMBA]; Democratic Party (unregistered) [Christopher MTIKLA]; Tanzania Labor Party or TLP [Augustine Lyatonga MREMA]; United Democratic Party or UDP [John CHEYO]
Political pressure groups and leaders:
International organization participation:
Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Andrew Mhando DARAJA
chancery: 2139 R Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
FAX: [1] (202) 797-7408
telephone: [1] (202) 939-6125
Diplomatic representation from US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Robert V. ROYALL
embassy: 140 Msese Road, Kinondoni District, Dar es Salaam
mailing address: P. O. Box 9123, Dar es Salaam
telephone: [255] (22) 2666-010 through 2666-015
FAX: [255] (22) 2666-701, 2668-501
Flag description:
divided diagonally by a yellow-edged black band from lower hoist-side corner; upper triangle (hoist side) is green and lower triangle is blue
Economy Tanzania
Economy - overview:
Tanzania is one of poorest countries in world. economy depends heavily on agriculture, which accounts for half of GDP, provides 85% of exports, and employs 80% of work force. Topography and climatic conditions, however, limit cultivated crops to only 4% of land area. Industry traditionally featured processing of agricultural products and light consumer goods. World Bank, International Monetary Fund, and bilateral donors have provided funds to rehabilitate Tanzania's out-of-date economic infrastructure and to alleviate poverty. Growth in 1991-2002 featured a pickup in industrial production and a substantial increase in output of minerals, led by gold. Oil and gas exploration and development played an important role in this growth. Recent banking reforms have helped increase private sector growth and investment. Continued donor support and solid macroeconomic policies should support continued real GDP growth of 5% in 2003.
buying power parity - $20.42 billion (2002 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:
6.1% (2002 est.)
GDP - per capita:
buying power parity - $600 (2002 est.)
GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 48.1%
industry: 15.4%
services: 36.5% (2001 est.)
Population below poverty line:
36% (2002 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: 2.8%
highest 10%: 30.1% (1993)
Distribution of family income - Gini index:
38.2 (1993)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
4.8% (2002 est.)
Labor force:
13.495 million
Labor force - by occupation:
agriculture 80%, industry and services 20% (2002 est.)
Unemployment rate:
revenues: $1.01 billion
expenditures: $1.38 billion, includes capital expenditures of $NA (FY 00/01 est.)
agricultural processing (sugar, beer, cigarettes, sisal twine), diamond and gold mining, oil refining, shoes, cement, textiles, wood products, fertilizer, salt
Industrial production growth rate:
8.4% (1999 est.)
Electricity - production:
2.906 billion kWh (2001)
Electricity - production by source:
fossil fuel: 18.9%
hydro: 81.1%
other: 0% (2001)
nuclear: 0%
Electricity - consumption:
2.752 billion kWh (2001)
Electricity - exports:
0 kWh (2001)
Electricity - imports:
50 million kWh (2001)
Oil - production:
0 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Oil - consumption:
17,000 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Oil - exports:
NA (2001)
Oil - imports:
NA (2001)
Oil - proved reserves:
0 bbl (37257)
Natural gas - proved reserves:
11.33 billion cu m (37257)
Agriculture - products:
coffee, sisal, tea, cotton, pyrethrum (insecticide made from chrysanthemums), cashew nuts, tobacco, cloves, corn, wheat, cassava (tapioca), bananas, fruits, vegetables; cattle, sheep, goats
$863 million f.o.b. (2001)
Exports - commodities:
gold, coffee, cashew nuts, manufactures, cotton
Exports - partners:
India 15.2%, Japan 12.4%, Netherlands 9.2%, UK 6.8%, Belgium 6.5%, Kenya 5.9%, Germany 4.8% (2002)
$1.67 billion f.o.b. (2001)
Imports - commodities:
consumer goods, machinery and transportation equipment, industrial raw materials, crude oil
Imports - partners:
South Africa 12.7%, China 7.9%, Kenya 6.6%, India 6.3%, UK 6%, Japan 4.5%, US 4%, Australia 4% (2002)
Debt - external:
$6.8 billion (2002 est.)
Economic aid - recipient:
$963 million (1997)
Tanzanian shilling (TZS)
Currency code:
Exchange rates:
Tanzanian shillings per US dollar - NA (2002), 876.41 (2001), 800.41 (2000), 744.76 (1999), 664.67 (1998)
Fiscal year:
1 July - 30 June
Communications Tanzania
Telephones - main lines in use:
127,000 (1998)
Telephones - mobile cellular:
30,000 (1999)
Telephone system:
general assessment: fair system operating below capacity and being modernized for better service; VSAT (very limited aperture terminal) system under construction
domestic: trunk service provided by open-wire, microwave radio relay, tropospheric scatter, and fiber-optic cable; some links being made digital
international: satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Indian Ocean and 1 Atlantic Ocean)
Radio broadcast stations:
AM 12, FM 11, shortwave 2 (1998)
8.8 million (1997)
Television broadcast stations:
3 (1999)
103,000 (1997)
Internet country code:
Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
6 (2000)
Internet users:
300,000 (2002)
Transportation Tanzania
total: 3,690 km
narrow gauge: 2,721 km 1.000-m gauge; 969 km 1.067-m gauge (2002)
total: 88,200 km
paved: 3,704 km
unpaved: 84,496 km (1999 est.)
note: Lake Tanganyika, Lake Victoria, and Lake Nyasa are principal avenues of commerce between Tanzania and its neighbors on those lakes
gas 5 km; oil 866 km (2003)
Ports and harbors:
Bukoba, Dar es Salaam, Kigoma, Kilwa Masoko, Lindi, Mtwara, Mwanza, Pangani, Tanga, Wete, Zanzibar
Merchant marine:
total: 10 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 30,781 GRT/33,805 DWT
ships by type: cargo 2, passenger/cargo 2, petroleum tanker 3, roll on/roll off 1, short-sea passenger 2 (2002 est.)
123 (2002)
Airports - with paved runways:
total: 11
over 3,047 m: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
1,524 to 2,437 m: 5
914 to 1,523 m: 1
under 914 m: 1 (2002)
Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 112
1,524 to 2,437 m: 18
914 to 1,523 m: 60
under 914 m: 34 (2002)
Military Tanzania
Military branches:
Tanzanian People's Defense Force (including Army, Navy, and Air Force), paramilitary Police Field Force Unit (including Police Marine Unit and Police Air Wing), territorial militia
Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 8,477,193 (2003 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service:
males age 15-49: 4,911,235 (2003 est.)
Military expenditures - dollar figure:
$19.68 million (FY02)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
0.2% (FY02)
Transnational Issues Tanzania
Disputes - international:
disputes with Malawi over boundary in Lake Nyasa (Lake Malawi) and meandering Songwe River remain dormant
Illicit drugs:
growing role in transshipment of Southwest and Southeast Asian heroin and South American cocaine destined for South African, European, and US markets and of South Asian methaqualone bound for Southern Africa; money laundering remains a problem