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Introduction Sudan
Military regimes favoring Islamic-oriented governments have dominated national politics since independence from UK in 1956. Sudan has been embroiled in a civil war for all but 10 years of this period (1972-82). wars are rooted in northern economic, political, and social domination of non-Muslim, non-Arab southern Sudanese. Since 1983, war and war- and famine-related effects have led to more than 2 million deaths and over 4 million people displaced. ruling regime is a mixture of military elite and an Islamist party that came to power in a 1989 coup. Some northern opposition parties have made common cause with southern rebels and entered war as a part of an anti-government alliance. Peace talks gained momentum in 2002-03 with signing of several accords, includes a cease-fire agreement.
Geography Sudan
Northern Africa, bordering Red Sea, between Egypt and Eritrea
Geographic coordinates:
15 00 N, 30 00 E
Map references:
total: 2,505,810 sq km
water: 129,810 sq km
land: 2.376 million sq km
Area - comparative:
slightly more than one-quarter size of US
Land boundaries:
total: 7,687 km
border countries: Central African Republic 1,165 km, Chad 1,360 km, Democratic Republic of Congo 628 km, Egypt 1,273 km, Eritrea 605 km, Ethiopia 1,606 km, Kenya 232 km, Libya 383 km, Uganda 435 km
853 km
Maritime claims:
contiguous zone: 18 NM
continental shelf: 200-m depth or to depth of exploitation
territorial sea: 12 NM
tropical in south; arid desert in north; rainy season varies by region (April to November)
generally flat, featureless plain; mountains in far south, northeast and west; desert dominates north
Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Red Sea 0 m
highest point: Kinyeti 3,187 m
Natural resources:
petroleum; limited reserves of iron ore, copper, chromium ore, zinc, tungsten, mica, silver, gold, hydropower
Land use:
arable land: 7.03%
permanent crops: 0.08%
other: 92.89% (1998 est.)
Irrigated land:
19,500 sq km (1998 est.)
Natural hazards:
dust storms and periodic persistent droughts
Environment - current issues:
inadequate supplies of potable water; wildlife populations threatened by excessive hunting; soil erosion; desertification; periodic drought
Environment - international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Law of Sea, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection
signed, but not ratified: none of selected agreements
Geography - note:
largest country in Africa; dominated by Nile and its tributaries
People Sudan
Total Population:
38,114,160 (July 2003 est.)
Age structure:
0-14 years: 44% (male 8,562,412; female 8,195,201)
15-64 years: 53.8% (male 10,260,581; female 10,246,045)
65 years and over: 2.2% (male 468,898; female 381,023) (2003 est.)
Median age:
total: 17.7 years
male: 17.5 years
female: 17.9 years (2002)
Population growth rate:
2.71% (2003 est.)
Birth rate:
36.48 births/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Death rate:
9.59 deaths/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Net migration rate:
0.24 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 1.23 male(s)/female
Population: 1.03 male(s)/female (2003 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
total: 65.59 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 64.85 deaths/1,000 live births (2003 est.)
male: 66.3 deaths/1,000 live births
Life Expectancy:
Population: 57.73 years
male: 56.59 years
female: 58.93 years (2003 est.)
Total fertility rate:
5.1 children born/woman (2003 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
2.6% (2001 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
450,000 (2001 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
23,000 (2001 est.)
noun: Sudanese (singular and plural)
adjective: Sudanese
Ethnic groups:
black 52%, Arab 39%, Beja 6%, foreigners 2%, other 1%
Sunni Muslim 70% (in north), indigenous beliefs 25%, Christian 5% (mostly in south and Khartoum)
Arabic (official), Nubian, Ta Bedawie, diverse dialects of Nilotic, Nilo-Hamitic, Sudanic languages, English
note: program of "Arabization" in process
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
Population: 61.1%
male: 71.8%
female: 50.5% (2003 est.)
Government Sudan
Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of Sudan
conventional short form: Sudan
local short form: As-Sudan
local long form: Jumhuriyat as-Sudan
former: Anglo-Egyptian Sudan
Government type:
authoritarian regime - ruling military junta took power in 1989; government is run by an alliance of military and National Congress Party (NCP), formerly National Islamic Front (NIF), which espouses an Islamist platform
Administrative divisions:
26 states (wilayat, singular - wilayah); A'ali an Nil, Al Bahr al Ahmar, Al Buhayrat, Al Jazirah, Al Khartum, Al Qadarif, Al Wahdah, An Nil al Abyad, An Nil al Azraq, Ash Shamaliyah, Bahr al Jabal, Gharb al Istiwa'iyah, Gharb Bahr al Ghazal, Gharb Darfur, Gharb Kurdufan, Janub Darfur, Janub Kurdufan, Junqali, Kassala, Nahr an Nil, Shamal Bahr al Ghazal, Shamal Darfur, Shamal Kurdufan, Sharq al Istiwa'iyah, Sinnar, Warab
1 January 1956 (from Egypt and UK)
National holiday:
Independence Day, 1 January (1956)
12 April 1973, suspended following coup of 6 April 1985; interim constitution of 10 October 1985 suspended following coup of 30 June 1989; new constitution implemented on 30 June 1998 partially suspended 12 December 1999 by President BASHIR
Legal system:
based on English common law and Islamic law; as of 20 January 1991, now defunct Revolutionary Command Council imposed Islamic law in northern states; Islamic law applies to all residents of northern states regardless of their religion; some separate religious courts; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations
17 years of age; universal, but noncompulsory
Executive branch:
chief of state: President Lt. Gen. Umar Hassan Ahmad al-BASHIR (since 16 October 1993); First Vice President Ali Uthman Muhammad TAHA (since 17 February 1998), Second Vice President Moses MACHAR (since 12 February 2001); note - president is both chief of state and head of government
elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term; election last held 13-23 December 2000 (next to be held NA 2005)
note: Lt. Gen. al-BASHIR assumed supreme executive power in 1989 and retained it through several transitional governments in early and mid-1990s before being popularly elected for first time in March 1996
election results: Lt. Gen. Umar Hasan Ahmad al-BASHIR reelected president; percent of vote - Umar Hasan Ahmad al-BASHIR 86.5%, Ja'afar Muhammed NUMAYRI 9.6%, three other candidates received a combined vote of 3.9%; election widely viewed as rigged; all popular opposition parties boycotted elections because of a lack of guarantees for a free and fair election
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by president; note - National Congress Party or NCP (formerly National Islamic Front or NIF) dominates al-BASHIR's cabinet
head of government: President Lt. Gen. Umar Hasan Ahmad al-BASHIR (since 16 October 1993); First Vice President Ali Uthman Muhammad TAHA (since 17 February 1998), Second Vice President Moses MACHAR (since 12 February 2001); note - president is both chief of state and head of government
Legislative branch:
unicameral National Assembly (360 seats; 270 popularly elected, 90 elected by supra assembly of interest groups known as National Congress; members serve four-year terms)
elections: last held 13-22 December 2000 (next to be held NA December 2004)
note: on 12 December 1999, BASHIR dismissed National Assembly during an internal power struggle between president and speaker of National Assembly Hassan al-TURABI
election results: NCP 355, others 5
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court; Special Revolutionary Courts
Political parties and leaders:
government allows political "associations" under a 1998 law revised in 2000; to obtain government approval parties must accept constitution and refrain from advocating or using violence against regime; approved parties include National Congress Party or NCP [Ibrahim Ahmed UMAR], Popular National Congress or PNC [Hassan al-TURABI], and over 20 minor, pro-government parties
Political pressure groups and leaders:
Democratic Unionist Party [Muhammed Uthman AL-MIRGHANI]; National Congress Party [Ibrahim Ahmed UMAR]; National Democratic Alliance [Muhammed Uthman AL-MIRGHANI, chairman]; Sudan People's Liberation Movement/Army [Dr. John GARANG]; Umma [Sadiq al-MAHDI]
International organization participation:
Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge D'Affairs, Ad Interim Khidir Haroun AHMED (since April 2001)
telephone: [1] (202) 338-8565
FAX: [1] (202) 667-2406
chancery: 2210 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
Diplomatic representation from US:
US Embassy in Khartoum is located on Sharia Abdul Latif Avenue; mailing address - P. O. Box 699, Khartoum; APO AE 09829; telephone - [249] (11) 774611 or 774700; FAX - [249] (11) 774137
Flag description:
three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and black with a green isosceles triangle based on hoist side
Economy Sudan
Economy - overview:
Sudan has turned around a struggling economy with sound economic policies and infrastructure investments, but it still faces formidable economic problems, notably low level of per capita output. From 1997 to date, Sudan has been implementing IMF macroeconomic reforms. In 1999 Sudan began exporting crude oil and in last quarter of 1999 recorded its first trade surplus, which, along with monetary policy, has stabilized exchange rate. Increased oil production, revived light industry, and expanded export processing zones helped maintain GDP growth at 5.1% in 2002. Agriculture production remains Sudan's most important sector, employing 80% of work force and contributing 43% of GDP, but most farms remain rain-fed and susceptible to drought. Chronic domestic instability, lagging reforms, adverse weather, and weak world agricultural prices - but, above all, low starting point - ensure that much of population will remain at or below poverty line for years.
buying power parity - $52.9 billion (2002 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:
5.1% (2002 est.)
GDP - per capita:
buying power parity - $1,400 (2002 est.)
GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 43%
industry: 17%
services: 40% (1999 est.)
Population below poverty line:
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
9.2% (2002 est.)
Labor force:
11 million (1996 est.)
Labor force - by occupation:
agriculture 80%, industry and commerce 7%, government 13% (1998 est.)
Unemployment rate:
18.7% (2002 est.)
revenues: $1.6 billion
expenditures: $1.9 billion, includes capital expenditures of $NA (2001 est.)
oil, cotton ginning, textiles, cement, edible oils, sugar, soap distilling, shoes, petroleum refining, pharmaceuticals, armaments, automobile/light truck assembly
Industrial production growth rate:
8.5% (1999 est.)
Electricity - production:
2.389 billion kWh (2001)
Electricity - production by source:
fossil fuel: 52.1%
hydro: 47.9%
other: 0% (2001)
nuclear: 0%
Electricity - consumption:
2.222 billion kWh (2001)
Electricity - exports:
0 kWh (2001)
Electricity - imports:
0 kWh (2001)
Oil - production:
209,100 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Oil - consumption:
50,000 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Oil - exports:
NA (2001)
Oil - imports:
NA (2001)
Oil - proved reserves:
631.5 million bbl (37257)
Natural gas - proved reserves:
99.11 billion cu m (37257)
Agriculture - products:
cotton, groundnuts (peanuts), sorghum, millet, wheat, gum arabic, sugarcane, cassava (tapioca), mangos, papaya, bananas, sweet potatoes, sesame; sheep, livestock
$1.8 billion f.o.b. (2002 est.)
Exports - commodities:
oil and petroleum products; cotton, sesame, livestock, groundnuts, gum arabic, sugar
Exports - partners:
China 55.7%, Japan 14%, Saudi Arabia 4.9% (2002)
$1.5 billion f.o.b. (2002 est.)
Imports - commodities:
foodstuffs, manufactured goods, refinery and transport equipment, medicines and chemicals, textiles, wheat
Imports - partners:
China 19.7%, Saudi Arabia 7.4%, Germany 5.5%, India 5.5%, UK 5.4%, Indonesia 4.7%, Australia 4% (2002)
Debt - external:
$15.8 billion (2002 est.)
Economic aid - recipient:
$187 million (1997)
Sudanese dinar (SDD)
Currency code:
Exchange rates:
Sudanese dinars per US dollar - 263.31 (2002), 258.7 (2001), 257.12 (2000), 252.55 (1999), 200.8 (1998)
Fiscal year:
calendar year
Communications Sudan
Telephones - main lines in use:
400,000 (2000)
Telephones - mobile cellular:
20,000 (2000)
Telephone system:
general assessment: large, well-equipped system by regional standards and being upgraded; cellular communications started in 1996 and have expanded substantially
domestic: consists of microwave radio relay, cable, radiotelephone communications, tropospheric scatter, and a domestic satellite system with 14 earth stations
international: satellite earth stations - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) and 1 Arabsat (2000)
Radio broadcast stations:
AM 12, FM 1, shortwave 1 (1998)
7.55 million (1997)
Television broadcast stations:
3 (1997)
2.38 million (1997)
Internet country code:
Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
2 (2002)
Internet users:
56,000 (2002)
Transportation Sudan
total: 5,978 km
narrow gauge: 4,578 km 1.067-m gauge; 1,400 km 0.600-m gauge plantation line (2002)
total: 11,900 km
paved: 4,320 km
unpaved: 7,580 km (1999 est.)
5,310 km
gas 156 km; oil 2,297 km; refined products 810 km (2003)
Ports and harbors:
Juba, Khartoum, Kusti, Malakal, Nimule, Port Sudan, Sawakin
Merchant marine:
total: 4 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 29,854 GRT/39,084 DWT
ships by type: cargo 1, livestock carrier 1, roll on/roll off 2 (2002 est.)
63 (2002)
Airports - with paved runways:
total: 12
over 3,047 m: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 8
1,524 to 2,437 m: 3 (2002)
Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 51
under 914 m: 10 (2002)
1,524 to 2,437 m: 17
914 to 1,523 m: 24
2 (2002)
Military Sudan
Military branches:
Army, Navy, Air Force, Popular Defense Force Militia
Military manpower - military age:
18 years of age (2003 est.)
Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 9,032,834 (2003 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service:
males age 15-49: 5,558,462 (2003 est.)
Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
males: 429,334 (2003 est.)
Military expenditures - dollar figure:
$581 million (2001 est.)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
2.5% (1999)
Transnational Issues Sudan
Disputes - international:
north-south civil war has drawn Sudan's neighbors into fighting, sheltering refugees, and infiltration by rebel groups - Kenya and Uganda have acted as mediators; Sudan accuses Eritrea of supporting Sudanese rebel groups; efforts to demarcate porous boundary with Ethiopia have been delayed by fighting in Sudan; Kenya's administrative boundary still extends into Sudan, creating "Ilemi triangle"; Egypt and Sudan retain claims to administer triangular areas that extend north and south of 1899 Treaty boundary along 22nd Parallel, but have withdrawn their military presence; Egypt is economically developing "Hala'ib triangle"