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Introduction Saudi Arabia
In 1902, ABD AL-AZIZ bin Abd al-Rahman Al Saud captured Riyadh and set out on a 30-year campaign to unify Arabian Peninsula. In 1930s, discovery of oil transformed country. Following Iraq's invasion of Kuwait in 1990, Saudi Arabia accepted Kuwaiti royal family and 400,000 refugees while allowing Western and Arab troops to deploy on its soil for liberation of Kuwait following year. A burgeoning population, aquifer depletion, and an economy largely dependent on petroleum output and prices are all major governmental concerns.
Geography Saudi Arabia
Middle East, bordering Persian Gulf and Red Sea, north of Yemen
Geographic coordinates:
25 00 N, 45 00 E
Map references:
Middle East
total: 1,960,582 sq km
water: 0 sq km
land: 1,960,582 sq km
Area - comparative:
slightly more than one-fifth size of US
Land boundaries:
total: 4,431 km
border countries: Iraq 814 km, Jordan 744 km, Kuwait 222 km, Oman 676 km, Qatar 60 km, UAE 457 km, Yemen 1,458 km
2,640 km
Maritime claims:
contiguous zone: 18 NM
continental shelf: not specified
territorial sea: 12 NM
harsh, dry desert with great temperature extremes
mostly uninhabited, sandy desert
Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Persian Gulf 0 m
highest point: Jabal Sawda' 3,133 m
Natural resources:
petroleum, natural gas, iron ore, gold, copper
Land use:
arable land: 1.72%
permanent crops: 0.06%
other: 98.22% (1998 est.)
Irrigated land:
16,200 sq km (1998 est.)
Natural hazards:
frequent sand and dust storms
Environment - current issues:
desertification; depletion of underground water resources; lack of perennial rivers or permanent water bodies has prompted development of extensive seawater desalination facilities; coastal pollution from oil spills
Environment - international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of Sea, Ozone Layer Protection
signed, but not ratified: none of selected agreements
Geography - note:
extensive coastlines on Persian Gulf and Red Sea provide great leverage on shipping (especially crude oil) through Persian Gulf and Suez Canal
People Saudi Arabia
Total Population:
note: includes 5,576,076 non-nationals (July 2003 est.)
Age structure:
0-14 years: 42.3% (male 5,245,413; female 5,028,595)
15-64 years: 54.8% (male 7,700,121; female 5,622,099)
65 years and over: 2.9% (male 393,173; female 304,443) (2003 est.)
Median age:
total: 18.8 years
male: 20.9 years
female: 16.8 years (2002)
Population growth rate:
3.27% (2003 est.)
Birth rate:
37.2 births/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Death rate:
5.79 deaths/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Net migration rate:
1.23 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.37 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 1.29 male(s)/female
Population: 1.22 male(s)/female (2003 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
total: 47.94 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 45.67 deaths/1,000 live births (2003 est.)
male: 50.1 deaths/1,000 live births
Life Expectancy:
Population: 68.73 years
male: 66.99 years
female: 70.55 years (2003 est.)
Total fertility rate:
6.15 children born/woman (2003 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
0.01% (2001 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
noun: Saudi(s)
adjective: Saudi or Saudi Arabian
Ethnic groups:
Arab 90%, Afro-Asian 10%
Muslim 100%
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
Population: 78.8%
male: 84.7%
female: 70.8% (2003 est.)
Government Saudi Arabia
Country name:
conventional long form: Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
conventional short form: Saudi Arabia
local long form: Al Mamlakah al Arabiyah as Suudiyah
local short form: Al Arabiyah as Suudiyah
Government type:
Administrative divisions:
13 provinces (mintaqat, singular - mintaqah); Al Bahah, Al Hudud ash Shamaliyah, Al Jawf, Al Madinah, Al Qasim, Ar Riyad, Ash Sharqiyah (Eastern Province), 'Asir, Ha'il, Jizan, Makkah, Najran, Tabuk
23 September 1932 (Unification of Kingdom)
National holiday:
Unification of Kingdom, 23 September (1932)
governed according to Shari'a (Islamic law); Basic Law that articulates government's rights and responsibilities previously introduced in 1993
Legal system:
based on Islamic law, several secular codes have been introduced; commercial disputes handled by special committees; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Executive branch:
chief of state: King and Prime Minister FAHD bin Abd al-Aziz Al Saud (since 13 June 1982); Crown Prince and First Deputy Prime Minister ABDALLAH bin Abd al-Aziz Al Saud (half-brother to monarch, heir to throne since 13 June 1982, regent from 1 January to 22 February 1996); note - monarch is both chief of state and head of government
elections: none; monarch is hereditary
head of government: King and Prime Minister FAHD bin Abd al-Aziz Al Saud (since 13 June 1982); Crown Prince and First Deputy Prime Minister ABDALLAH bin Abd al-Aziz Al Saud (half-brother to monarch, heir to throne since 13 June 1982, regent from 1 January to 22 February 1996); note - monarch is both chief of state and head of government
cabinet: Council of Ministers is appointed by monarch and includes many royal family members
Legislative branch:
Consultative Council or Majlis al-Shura (120 members and a chairman appointed by monarch for four-year terms)
Judicial branch:
Supreme Council of Justice
Political parties and leaders:
none allowed
Political pressure groups and leaders:
International organization participation:
Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission: Ambassador BANDAR bin Sultan bin Abd al-Aziz Al Saud
chancery: 601 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20037
consulate(s) general: Houston, Los Angeles, and New York
telephone: [1] (202) 342-3800
Diplomatic representation from US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Robert W. JORDAN
embassy: Collector Road M, Diplomatic Quarter, Riyadh
mailing address: American Embassy Riyadh, Unit 61307, APO AE 09803-1307; International Mail: P. O. Box 94309, Riyadh 11693
telephone: [966] (1) 488-3800
FAX: [966] (1) 488-7360
consulate(s) general: Dhahran, Jiddah (Jeddah)
Flag description:
green with large white Arabic script (that may be translated as There is no God but God; Muhammad is Messenger of God) above a white horizontal saber (the tip points to hoist side); green is traditional color of Islam
Economy Saudi Arabia
Economy - overview:
This is an oil-based economy with strong government controls over major economic activities. Saudi Arabia has largest reserves of petroleum in world (26% of proved reserves), ranks as largest exporter of petroleum, and plays a leading role in OPEC. petroleum sector accounts for roughly 75% of budget revenues, 45% of GDP, and 90% of export earnings. About 25% of GDP comes from private sector. Roughly 4 million foreign workers play an important role in Saudi economy, for example, in oil and service sectors. government in 1999 announced plans to begin privatizing electricity companies, which follows ongoing privatization of telecommunications company. government is supporting private sector growth to lessen kingdom's dependence on oil and increase employment opportunities for swelling Saudi population. Priorities for government spending in short term include additional funds for water and sewage systems and for education. Water shortages and rapid population growth constrain government's efforts to increase self-sufficiency in agricultural products.
buying power parity - $268.9 billion (2002 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:
1% (2002 est.)
GDP - per capita:
buying power parity - $11,400 (2002 est.)
GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 5.2%
industry: 51.2%
services: 43.6% (2001 est.)
Population below poverty line:
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
1% (2002 est.)
Labor force:
7 million
note: 35% of population in 15-64 age group is non-national
Labor force - by occupation:
agriculture 12%, industry 25%, services 63% (1999 est.)
Unemployment rate:
25% (2002)
revenues: $46 billion
expenditures: $56.5 billion, includes capital expenditures of $NA (2003 est.)
crude oil production, petroleum refining, basic petrochemicals, cement, construction, fertilizer, plastics
Industrial production growth rate:
1% (1997 est.)
Electricity - production:
122.4 billion kWh (2001)
Electricity - production by source:
fossil fuel: 100%
hydro: 0%
other: 0% (2001)
nuclear: 0%
Electricity - consumption:
113.8 billion kWh (2001)
Electricity - exports:
0 kWh (2001)
Electricity - imports:
0 kWh (2001)
Oil - production:
8.711 million bbl/day (2001 est.)
Oil - consumption:
1.452 million bbl/day (2001 est.)
Oil - exports:
NA (2001)
Oil - imports:
NA (2001)
Oil - proved reserves:
261.7 billion bbl (37257)
Natural gas - production:
53.69 billion cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - consumption:
53.69 billion cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - exports:
0 cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - imports:
0 cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves:
6.339 trillion cu m (37257)
Agriculture - products:
wheat, barley, tomatoes, melons, dates, citrus; mutton, chickens, eggs, milk
$71 billion f.o.b. (2001)
Exports - commodities:
petroleum and petroleum products 90%
Exports - partners:
US 18.6%, Japan 15.6%, South Korea 10.1%, Singapore 5.1%, China 4.6% (2002)
$39.5 billion f.o.b. (2001)
Imports - commodities:
machinery and equipment, foodstuffs, chemicals, motor vehicles, textiles
Imports - partners:
US 11.2%, Japan 8.8%, Germany 7.6%, UK 4.9%, France 4.9%, Italy 4.1% (2002)
Debt - external:
$25.9 billion (2003 est.)
Economic aid - donor:
pledged $100 million in 1993 to fund reconstruction of Lebanon; since 2000, Saudi Arabia has committed $307 million for assistance to Palestinians; pledged $240 million to development in Afghanistan
Saudi riyal (SAR)
Currency code:
Exchange rates:
Saudi riyals per US dollar - 3.75 (2002), 3.75 (2001), 3.75 (2000), 3.75 (1999), 3.75 (1998)
Fiscal year:
calendar year
Communications Saudi Arabia
Telephones - main lines in use:
3.9 million (2002 est.)
Telephones - mobile cellular:
2.9 million (2002 est.)
Telephone system:
general assessment: modern system
domestic: extensive microwave radio relay, coaxial cable, and fiber-optic cable systems
international: microwave radio relay to Bahrain, Jordan, Kuwait, Qatar, UAE, Yemen, and Sudan; coaxial cable to Kuwait and Jordan; submarine cable to Djibouti, Egypt and Bahrain; satellite earth stations - 5 Intelsat (3 Atlantic Ocean and 2 Indian Ocean), 1 Arabsat, and 1 Inmarsat (Indian Ocean region)
Radio broadcast stations:
AM 43, FM 31, shortwave 2 (1998)
6.25 million (1997)
Television broadcast stations:
117 (1997)
5.1 million (1997)
Internet country code:
Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
22 (2003)
Internet users:
1.453 million (2002)
Transportation Saudi Arabia
total: 1,392 km
standard gauge: 1,392 km 1.435-m gauge (with branch lines and sidings) (2002)
total: 151,470 km
paved: 45,592 km
unpaved: 105,878 km (1999)
condensate 212 km; gas 837 km; liquid petroleum gas 1,187 km; oil 5,062 km; refined products 69 km (2003)
Ports and harbors:
Ad Dammam, Al Jubayl, Duba, Jiddah, Jizan, Rabigh, Ra's al Khafji, Mishab, Ras Tanura, Yanbu' al Bahr, Madinat Yanbu' al Sinaiyah
Merchant marine:
total: 71 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 1,461,964 GRT/2,301,258 DWT
ships by type: cargo 9, chemical tanker 11, container 4, livestock carrier 2, passenger 1, petroleum tanker 23, refrigerated cargo 4, roll on/roll off 9, short-sea passenger 8
note: includes some foreign-owned ships registered here as a flag of convenience: Egypt 3, Finland 1, Greece 3, Kuwait 1, Sudan 1, UAE 1, UK 3 (2002 est.)
209 (2002)
Airports - with paved runways:
total: 71
over 3,047 m: 31
2,438 to 3,047 m: 12
914 to 1,523 m: 2
under 914 m: 2 (2002)
1,524 to 2,437 m: 24
Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 138
under 914 m: 13 (2002)
over 3047 m: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 6
914 to 1,523 m: 39
1,524 to 2,437 m: 79
5 (2002)
Military Saudi Arabia
Military branches:
Land Force (Army), Navy, Air Force, Air Defense Force, National Guard, Ministry of Interior Forces (paramilitary)
Military manpower - military age:
17 years of age (2003 est.)
Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 6,123,784 (2003 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service:
males age 15-49: 3,431,281 (2003 est.)
Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
males: 253,685 (2003 est.)
Military expenditures - dollar figure:
$18.3 billion (FY00)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
13% (FY00)
Transnational Issues Saudi Arabia
Disputes - international:
nomadic groups on border region with Yemen resist demarcation of boundary; Kuwait and Saudi Arabia have been negotiating a long-contested maritime boundary with Iran; because treaties have not been made public, exact alignment of boundary with UAE is still unknown and labeled approximate
Illicit drugs:
death penalty for traffickers; increasing consumption of heroin, cocaine, and hashish