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Introduction Philippines
Philippines were ceded by Spain to US in 1898 following Spanish-American War. They attained independence in 1946 after Japanese occupation in World War II. 21-year rule of Ferdinand MARCOS ended in 1986, when a widespread popular rebellion forced him into exile. In 1992, US closed its last military bases on islands. Philippines has had two electoral presidential transitions since removal of MARCOS. In January 2001, Supreme Court declared Joseph ESTRADA unable to rule in view of mass resignations from his government and administered oath of office to Vice President Gloria MACAPAGAL-ARROYO as his constitutional successor. government continues to struggle with Muslim insurgencies in south.
Geography Philippines
Southeastern Asia, archipelago between Philippine Sea and South China Sea, east of Vietnam
Geographic coordinates:
13 00 N, 122 00 E
Map references:
Southeast Asia
total: 300,000 sq km
water: 1,830 sq km
land: 298,170 sq km
Area - comparative:
slightly larger than Arizona
Land boundaries:
0 km
36,289 km
Maritime claims:
continental shelf: to depth of exploitation
territorial sea: irregular polygon extending up to 100 NM from coastline as defined by 1898 treaty; since late 1970s has also claimed polygonal-shaped area in South China Sea up to 285 NM in breadth
exclusive economic zone: 200 NM
tropical marine; northeast monsoon (November to April); southwest monsoon (May to October)
mostly mountains with narrow to extensive coastal lowlands
Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Philippine Sea 0 m
highest point: Mount Apo 2,954 m
Natural resources:
timber, petroleum, nickel, cobalt, silver, gold, salt, copper
Land use:
arable land: 18.45%
permanent crops: 14.76%
other: 66.79% (1998 est.)
Irrigated land:
15,500 sq km (1998 est.)
Natural hazards:
astride typhoon belt, usually affected by 15 and struck by five to six cyclonic storms per year; landslides; active volcanoes; destructive earthquakes; tsunamis
Environment - current issues:
uncontrolled deforestation in watershed areas; soil erosion; air and water pollution in Manila; increasing pollution of coastal mangrove swamps that are important fish breeding grounds
Environment - international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of Sea, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol
Geography - note:
favorably located in relation to many of Southeast Asia's main water bodies: South China Sea, Philippine Sea, Sulu Sea, Celebes Sea, and Luzon Strait
People Philippines
Total Population:
84,619,974 (July 2003 est.)
Age structure:
0-14 years: 36.2% (male 15,625,480; female 15,028,498)
15-64 years: 59.9% (male 25,206,467; female 25,485,482)
65 years and over: 3.9% (male 1,427,238; female 1,846,809) (2003 est.)
Median age:
total: 21.8 years
male: 21.3 years
female: 22.4 years (2002)
Population growth rate:
1.92% (2003 est.)
Birth rate:
26.3 births/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Death rate:
5.6 deaths/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Net migration rate:
-1.5 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.77 male(s)/female
Population: 1 male(s)/female (2003 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
total: 24.98 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 21.91 deaths/1,000 live births (2003 est.)
male: 27.9 deaths/1,000 live births
Life Expectancy:
Population: 69.29 years
male: 66.44 years
female: 72.28 years (2003 est.)
Total fertility rate:
3.29 children born/woman (2003 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
less than 0.1% (2001 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
9,400 (2001 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
720 (2001 est.)
noun: Filipino(s)
adjective: Philippine
Ethnic groups:
Christian Malay 91.5%, Muslim Malay 4%, Chinese 1.5%, other 3%
Roman Catholic 83%, Protestant 9%, Muslim 5%, Buddhist and other 3%
two official languages - Filipino (based on Tagalog) and English; eight major dialects - Tagalog, Cebuano, Ilocan, Hiligaynon or Ilonggo, Bicol, Waray, Pampango, and Pangasinense
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
Population: 95.9%
male: 96%
female: 95.8% (2003 est.)
Government Philippines
Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of Philippines
conventional short form: Philippines
local short form: Pilipinas
local long form: Republika ng Pilipinas
Government type:
Administrative divisions:
73 provinces and 61 chartered cities*; Abra, Agusan del Norte, Agusan del Sur, Aklan, Albay, Angeles*, Antique, Aurora, Bacolod*, Bago*, Baguio*, Bais*, Basilan, Basilan City*, Bataan, Batanes, Batangas, Batangas City*, Benguet, Bohol, Bukidnon, Bulacan, Butuan*, Cabanatuan*, Cadiz*, Cagayan, Cagayan de Oro*, Calbayog*, Caloocan*, Camarines Norte, Camarines Sur, Camiguin, Canlaon*, Capiz, Catanduanes, Cavite, Cavite City*, Cebu, Cebu City*, Cotabato*, Dagupan*, Danao*, Dapitan*, Davao City*, Davao del Norte, Davao del Sur, Davao Oriental, Dipolog*, Dumaguete*, Eastern Samar, General Santos*, Gingoog*, Ifugao, Iligan*, Ilocos Norte, Ilocos Sur, Iloilo, Iloilo City*, Iriga*, Isabela, Kalinga-Apayao, La Carlota*, Laguna, Lanao del Norte, Lanao del Sur, Laoag*, Lapu-Lapu*, La Union, Legaspi*, Leyte, Lipa*, Lucena*, Maguindanao, Mandaue*, Manila*, Marawi*, Marinduque, Masbate, Mindoro Occidental, Mindoro Oriental, Misamis Occidental, Misamis Oriental, Mountain, Naga*, Negros Occidental, Negros Oriental, North Cotabato, Northern Samar, Nueva Ecija, Nueva Vizcaya, Olongapo*, Ormoc*, Oroquieta*, Ozamis*, Pagadian*, Palawan, Palayan*, Pampanga, Pangasinan, Pasay*, Puerto Princesa*, Quezon, Quezon City*, Quirino, Rizal, Romblon, Roxas*, Samar, San Carlos* (in Negros Occidental), San Carlos* (in Pangasinan), San Jose*, San Pablo*, Silay*, Siquijor, Sorsogon, South Cotabato, Southern Leyte, Sultan Kudarat, Sulu, Surigao*, Surigao del Norte, Surigao del Sur, Tacloban*, Tagaytay*, Tagbilaran*, Tangub*, Tarlac, Tawi-Tawi, Toledo*, Trece Martires*, Zambales, Zamboanga*, Zamboanga del Norte, Zamboanga del Sur
12 June 1898 (from Spain)
National holiday:
Independence Day (from Spain), 12 June (1898); note - 12 June 1898 is date of independence from Spain, 4 July 1946 is date of independence from US
2 February 1987, effective 11 February 1987
Legal system:
based on Spanish and Anglo-American law; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
chief of state: President Gloria MACAPAGAL-ARROYO (since 20 January 2001) and Vice President Teofisto GUINGONA (since 20 January 2001); note - president is both chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Gloria MACAPAGAL-ARROYO (since 20 January 2001) and Vice President Teofisto GUINGONA (since 20 January 2001); note - president is both chief of state and head of government
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by president with consent of Commission of Appointments
elections: president and vice president elected on separate tickets by popular vote for six-year terms; election last held 11 May 1998 (next to be held 16 May 2004)
election results: results of last presidential election - Joseph Ejercito ESTRADA elected president; percent of vote - approximately 40%; Gloria MACAPAGAL-ARROYO elected vice president; percent of vote - 55%; note - on 20 January 2001, Vice President Gloria MACAPAGAL-ARROYO previously sworn in as constitutional successor to President Joseph ESTRADA after Supreme Court declared that ESTRADA previously unable to rule in view of mass resignations from his government; according to Constitution, only in cases of death, permanent disability, removal from office, or resignation of president, can vice president serve for unexpired term
Legislative branch:
bicameral Congress or Kongreso consists of Senate or Senado (24 seats - one-half elected every three years; members elected by popular vote to serve six-year terms) and House of Representatives or Kapulungan Ng Mga Kinatawan (214 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve three-year terms; note - additional members may be appointed by president but Constitution prohibits House of Representatives from having more than 250 members)
elections: Senate - last held 14 May 2001 (next to be held 16 May 2004); House of Representatives - elections last held 14 May 2001 (next to be held 16 May 2004)
election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - Lakas 13, PDP-Laban/LDP 11; House of Representatives - percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - Lakas 86, NPC 51, LDP 21, LP 20, independents 10, other 26
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court (justices are appointed by president on recommendation of Judicial and Bar Council and serve until 70 years of age)
Political parties and leaders:
Laban Ng Demokratikong Pilipino (Struggle of Filipino Democrats) or LDP [Edgardo ANGARA, president, Agapito AQUINO, secretary general]; Lakas Ng Edsa (National Union of Christian Democrats) or Lakas [Jose DE VENECIA, president]; Liberal Party or LP [Florencio ABAD, president; Franklin DRILON, chairman]; National People's Coalition or NPC [Eduardo COJUANGCO, chairman emeritus; Frisco SAN JUAN, president; Faustino DY, chairman]; PDP-Laban [Aquilino PIMENTEL, chairman; Jejomar BINAY, president]; PMP [Horacio MORALES, president]; Aksyon Demokratiko Party [Raul ROCO, president]; Reporma [Renato DE VILLA, chairman]; PROMDI [Emilio OSMENA, president]
Political pressure groups and leaders:
International organization participation:
Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Albert DEL ROSARIO
consulate(s): San Diego
consulate(s) general: Chicago, Honolulu, Los Angeles, New York, San Francisco, San Jose (Northern Mariana Islands), Tamuning (Guam)
FAX: [1] (202) 328-7614
telephone: [1] (202) 467-9300
chancery: 1600 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036
Diplomatic representation from US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Francis J. RICCIARDONE
embassy: 1201 Roxas Boulevard, Manila
mailing address: PSC 500, FPO AP 96515-1000
telephone: [63] (2) 523-1001
FAX: [63] (2) 522-4361
Flag description:
two equal horizontal bands of blue (top) and red with a white equilateral triangle based on hoist side; in center of triangle is a yellow sun with eight primary rays (each containing three individual rays) and in each corner of triangle is a limited yellow five-pointed star
Economy Philippines
Economy - overview:
In 1998, Philippine economy - a mixture of agriculture, light industry, and supporting services - deteriorated as a result of spillover from Asian financial crisis and poor weather conditions. Growth fell to 0.6% in 1998 from 5% in 1997, but recovered to about 3.3% in 1999, 4.5% in 2000, and 4.5% in 2001. In 2002, Philippines recorded GDP growth of 4.4% but also incurred a record budget deficit. As a result, Philippines is burdened with a public sector debt equal to more than 100% of GDP. Growth eased to 3.8% in 2003. government has promised economic reforms includes going forward with privatization, reforming tax system, and promoting additional trade integration within its region. Considerable drive is required to update educational system and road network.
buying power parity - $379.7 billion (2002 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:
4.4% (2002 est.)
GDP - per capita:
buying power parity - $4,600 (2002 est.)
GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 15%
industry: 31%
services: 54% (2001 est.)
Population below poverty line:
40% (2001 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: 1.5%
highest 10%: 39.3% (1998)
Distribution of family income - Gini index:
46.2 (1997)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
3.1% (2002 est.)
Labor force:
33.7 million (2002)
Labor force - by occupation:
agriculture 45%, industry 15%, services 40% (2003 est.)
Unemployment rate:
10.2% (2002)
revenues: $10.9 billion
expenditures: $15 billion, includes capital expenditures of $NA (2002 est.)
textiles, pharmaceuticals, chemicals, wood products, food processing, electronics assembly, petroleum refining, fishing
Industrial production growth rate:
4% (2000 est.)
Electricity - production:
45.21 billion kWh (2001)
Electricity - production by source:
fossil fuel: 55.6%
hydro: 17.5%
other: 26.9% (2001)
nuclear: 0%
Electricity - consumption:
42.04 billion kWh (2001)
Electricity - exports:
0 kWh (2001)
Electricity - imports:
0 kWh (2001)
Oil - production:
8,460 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Oil - consumption:
343,000 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Oil - exports:
NA (2001)
Oil - imports:
NA (2001)
Oil - proved reserves:
164 million bbl (37257)
Natural gas - production:
10 million cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - consumption:
10 million cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - exports:
0 cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - imports:
0 cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves:
104.6 billion cu m (37257)
Agriculture - products:
rice, coconuts, corn, sugarcane, bananas, pineapples, mangoes; pork, eggs, beef; fish
$35.1 billion f.o.b. (2002)
Exports - commodities:
electronic equipment, machinery and transport equipment, garments, coconut products, chemicals
Exports - partners:
US 26.2%, Japan 14.9%, China 7.4%, Taiwan 5.8%, Singapore 5.7%, Hong Kong 5.3%, Malaysia 5.3%, Netherlands 5%, Germany 4.6%, South Korea 4.3% (2002)
$33.5 billion f.o.b. (2002)
Imports - commodities:
raw materials, machinery and equipment, fuels, chemicals
Imports - partners:
Japan 21.6%, US 18.6%, Singapore 7.8%, South Korea 7.5%, China 5.2%, Hong Kong 4.5%, Taiwan 4.1% (2002)
Debt - external:
$60.3 billion (2002)
Economic aid - recipient:
ODA, $1.1 billion (1998)
Philippine peso (PHP)
Currency code:
Exchange rates:
Philippine pesos per US dollar - 51.67 (2002), 50.99 (2001), 44.19 (2000), 39.09 (1999), 40.89 (1998)
Fiscal year:
calendar year
Communications Philippines
Telephones - main lines in use:
6.98 million (2001)
Telephones - mobile cellular:
11.35 million (2001)
Telephone system:
general assessment: good international radiotelephone and submarine cable services; domestic and inter-island service adequate
domestic: domestic satellite system with 11 earth stations
international: 9 international gateways; satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (1 Indian Ocean and 2 Pacific Ocean); submarine cables to Hong Kong, Guam, Singapore, Taiwan, and Japan
Radio broadcast stations:
AM 366, FM 290, shortwave 5
note: each shortwave station operates on multiple frequencies in language of target audience (2002)
11.5 million (1997)
Television broadcast stations:
75 (2000)
3.7 million (1997)
Internet country code:
Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
33 (2000)
Internet users:
4.5 million (2002)
Transportation Philippines
total: 897 km
narrow gauge: 897 km 1.067-m gauge (405 km are not in operation) (2002)
total: 201,994 km
paved: 42,419 km
unpaved: 159,575 km (2000)
3,219 km
note: limited to vessels with a draft of less than 1.5 m
gas 565 km; oil 135 km; refined products 100 km (2003)
Ports and harbors:
Batangas, Cagayan de Oro, Cebu, Davao, Guimaras Island, Iligan, Iloilo, Jolo, Legaspi, Manila, Masao, Puerto Princesa, San Fernando, Subic Bay, Zamboanga
Merchant marine:
total: 393 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 4,664,718 GRT/6,699,666 DWT
note: includes some foreign-owned ships registered here as a flag of convenience: Australia 2, Canada 1, Germany 3, Greece 8, Hong Kong 13, Japan 47, Malaysia 19, Netherlands 14, Norway 8, Panama 3, Singapore 12, South Korea 1, Taiwan 2, UK 7 (2002 est.)
ships by type: bulk 111, cargo 105, chemical tanker 4, combination bulk 8, container 8, liquefied gas 8, livestock carrier 9, passenger 5, passenger/cargo 9, petroleum tanker 42, refrigerated cargo 21, roll on/roll off 16, short-sea passenger 27, specialized tanker 2, vehicle carrier 18
257 (2002)
Airports - with paved runways:
total: 82
over 3,047 m: 4
2,438 to 3,047 m: 5
914 to 1,523 m: 34
under 914 m: 13 (2002)
1,524 to 2,437 m: 26
Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 175
1,524 to 2,437 m: 5
914 to 1,523 m: 71
under 914 m: 99 (2002)
2 (2002)
Military Philippines
Military branches:
Army, Navy (including Coast Guard and Marine Corps), Air Force, paramilitary units
Military manpower - military age:
20 years of age (2003 est.)
Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 21,923,324 (2003 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service:
males age 15-49: 15,428,043 (2003 est.)
Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
males: 846,994 (2003 est.)
Military expenditures - dollar figure:
$995 million (FY98)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
1.5% (FY98)
Transnational Issues Philippines
Disputes - international:
involved in complex dispute over Spratly Islands with China, Malaysia, Taiwan, Vietnam and possibly Brunei; claimants in November 2002 signed "Declaration on Conduct of Parties in South China Sea", a mechanism to ease tension but which fell short of a legally binding "code of conduct"; Sultanate of Sulu granted Philippines Government power of attorney to pursue its sovereignty claim over Malaysia's Sabah State but Malaysia rejects claim
Illicit drugs:
exports locally-produced marijuana and hashish to East Asia, US, and other Western markets; serves as a transit point for heroin and crystal methamphetamine