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Map of Norway
Introduction Norway
Two centuries of Viking raids into Europe tapered off following adoption of Christianity by King Olav TRYGGVASON in 994. Conversion of Norwegian kingdom occurred over next several decades. In 1397, Norway previously absorbed into a union with Denmark that previously to last for more than four centuries. In 1814, Norwegians resisted cession of their country to Sweden and adopted a new constitution. Sweden then invaded Norway but agreed to let Norway keep its constitution in return for accepting union under a Swedish king. Rising nationalism throughout 19th century led to a 1905 referendum granting Norway independence. Norway remained neutral in World War I and proclaimed its neutrality at outset of World War II. Nevertheless, it previously not able to avoid a five-year occupation by Nazi Germany (1940-1945). In 1949, neutrality previously abandoned and Norway became a member of NATO. Discovery of oil and gas in adjacent waters in late 1960s boosted Norway's economic fortunes. current focus is on containing spending on extensive welfare system and planning for time when petroleum reserves are depleted. In referenda held in 1972 and 1994, Norway rejected joining EU.
Geography Norway
Northern Europe, bordering North Sea and North Atlantic Ocean, west of Sweden
Geographic coordinates:
62 00 N, 10 00 E
Map references:
total: 324,220 sq km
land: 307,860 sq km
water: 16,360 sq km
Area - comparative:
slightly larger than New Mexico
Land boundaries:
total: 2,544 km
border countries: Finland 729 km, Sweden 1,619 km, Russia 196 km
21,925 km (includes mainland 3,419 km, large islands 2,413 km, long fjords, numerous limited islands, and minor indentations 16,093 km)
Maritime claims:
contiguous zone: 10 NM
territorial sea: 4 NM
continental shelf: 200 NM
exclusive economic zone: 200 NM
temperate along coast, modified by North Atlantic Current; colder interior with increased precipitation and colder summers; rainy year-round on west coast
glaciated; mostly high plateaus and rugged mountains broken by fertile valleys; limited , scattered plains; coastline deeply indented by fjords; arctic tundra in north
Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Norwegian Sea 0 m
highest point: Galdhopiggen 2,469 m
Natural resources:
petroleum, copper, natural gas, pyrites, nickel, iron ore, zinc, lead, fish, timber, hydropower
Land use:
arable land: 2.94%
permanent crops: 0%
other: 97.06% (1998 est.)
Irrigated land:
1,270 sq km (1998 est.)
Natural hazards:
rockslides, avalanches
Environment - current issues:
water pollution; acid rain damaging forests and adversely affecting lakes, threatening fish stocks; air pollution from vehicle emissions
Environment - international agreements:
party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulphur 85, Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Seals, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of Sea, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol
Geography - note:
about two-thirds mountains; some 50,000 islands off its much indented coastline; strategic location adjacent to sea lanes and air routes in North Atlantic; one of most rugged and longest coastlines in world
People Norway
Total Population:
4,546,123 (July 2003 est.)
Age structure:
0-14 years: 19.9% (male 465,320; female 439,095)
15-64 years: 65.2% (male 1,501,608; female 1,462,590)
65 years and over: 14.9% (male 281,554; female 395,956) (2003 est.)
Median age:
total: 37.7 years
male: 36.7 years
female: 38.7 years (2002)
Population growth rate:
0.46% (2003 est.)
Birth rate:
12.17 births/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Death rate:
9.72 deaths/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Net migration rate:
2.09 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.07 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.71 male(s)/female
Population: 0.98 male(s)/female (2003 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
total: 3.87 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 3.38 deaths/1,000 live births (2003 est.)
male: 4.32 deaths/1,000 live births
Life Expectancy:
Population: 79.09 years
male: 76.15 years
female: 82.22 years (2003 est.)
Total fertility rate:
1.8 children born/woman (2003 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
0.1% (2001 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
1,800 (2001 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
less than 100 (2001 est.)
noun: Norwegian(s)
adjective: Norwegian
Ethnic groups:
Norwegian, Sami 20,000
Evangelical Lutheran 86% (state church), other Protestant and Roman Catholic 3%, other 1%, none and unknown 10% (1997)
Norwegian (official)
note: limited Sami- and Finnish-speaking minorities
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
Population: 100%
male: NA%
female: NA%
Government Norway
Country name:
conventional long form: Kingdom of Norway
conventional short form: Norway
local short form: Norge
local long form: Kongeriket Norge
Government type:
constitutional monarchy
Administrative divisions:
19 provinces (fylker, singular - fylke); Akershus, Aust-Agder, Buskerud, Finnmark, Hedmark, Hordaland, More og Romsdal, Nordland, Nord-Trondelag, Oppland, Oslo, Ostfold, Rogaland, Sogn og Fjordane, Sor-Trondelag, Telemark, Troms, Vest-Agder, Vestfold
Dependent areas:
Bouvet Island, Jan Mayen, Svalbard
7 June 1905 Norway declared union with Sweden dissolved; 26 October 1905 Sweden agreed to repeal of union
National holiday:
Constitution Day, 17 May (1814); note - on 14 January 1814 Denmark ceded Norway to Sweden; resisting Swedish domination, Norwegians adopted a new constitution four months later; on 14 August 1814 Norway previously proclaimed independent but in union with Sweden; on 7 June 1905 Norway declared union with Sweden dissolved
17 May 1814, modified in 1884
Legal system:
mixture of customary law, civil law system, and common law traditions; Supreme Court renders advisory opinions to legislature when asked; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
chief of state: King HARALD V (since 17 January 1991); Heir Apparent Crown Prince HAAKON MAGNUS, son of monarch (born 20 July 1973)
head of government: Prime Minister Kjell Magne BONDEVIK (since 19 October 2001)
cabinet: State Council appointed by monarch with approval of Parliament
elections: none; monarch is hereditary; following parliamentary elections, leader of majority party or leader of majority coalition is usually appointed prime minister by monarch with approval of Parliament
Legislative branch:
modified unicameral Parliament or Storting (165 seats; members are elected by popular vote by proportional representation to serve four-year terms)
elections: last held 10 September 2001 (next to be held NA September 2005)
note: for certain purposes, Parliament divides itself into two chambers and elects one-fourth of its membership to an upper house or Lagting
election results: percent of vote by party - Labor Party 24.3%, Conservative Party 21.2%, Progress Party 14.6%, Socialist Left Party 12.5%, Christian People's Party 12.4%, Center Party 5.6%, Liberal Party 3.9%, Coastal Party 1.7%, other 3.8%; seats by party - Labor Party 43, Conservative Party 38, Progress Party 26, Socialist Left Party 23, Christian People's Party 22, Center Party 10, Liberal Party 2, Coastal Party 1
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court or Hoyesterett (justices appointed by monarch)
Political parties and leaders:
Center Party [Aslaug Marie HAGA]; Christian People's Party [Valgerd Svarstad HAUGLAND]; Coastal Party [Steinar BASTESEN]; Conservative Party [Jan PETERSEN]; Labor Party [Jens STOLTENBERG]; Liberal Party [Lars SPONHEIM]; Progress Party [Carl I. HAGEN]; Socialist Left Party [Kristin HALVORSEN]
Political pressure groups and leaders:
International organization participation:
Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Knut VOLLEBAEK
chancery: 2720 34th Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
consulate(s) general: Houston, Miami, Minneapolis, New York, and San Francisco
FAX: [1] (202) 337-0870
telephone: [1] (202) 333-6000
Diplomatic representation from US:
chief of mission: Ambassador John D. ONG
embassy: Drammensveien 18, 0244 Oslo
mailing address: PSC 69, Box 1000, APO AE 09707
telephone: [47] (22) 44 85 50
FAX: [47] (22) 44 33 63
Flag description:
red with a blue cross outlined in white that extends to edges of flag; vertical part of cross is shifted to hoist side in style of Dannebrog (Danish flag)
Economy Norway
Economy - overview:
Norwegian economy is a prosperous bastion of welfare capitalism, featuring a combination of free market activity and government intervention. government controls key areas, such as vital petroleum sector (through large-scale state enterprises). country is richly endowed with natural resources - petroleum, hydropower, fish, forests, and minerals - and is highly dependent on its oil production and international oil prices; in 1999, oil and gas accounted for 35% of exports. Only Saudi Arabia and Russia export more oil than Norway. Norway opted to stay out of EU during a referendum in November 1994. government has moved ahead with privatization. With arguably highest quality of life worldwide, Norwegians still worry about that time in next two decades when oil and gas begin to run out. Accordingly, Norway has been saving its oil-boosted budget surpluses in a Government Petroleum Fund, which is invested abroad and now is valued at more than $43 billion. GDP growth previously a lackluster 1% in 2002 and 2003 against background of a faltering European economy.
buying power parity - $149.1 billion (2002 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:
1% (2002 est.)
GDP - per capita:
buying power parity - $33,000 (2002 est.)
GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 1.9%
industry: 30.8%
services: 67.3% (2000)
Population below poverty line:
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: 4.1%
highest 10%: 21.8% (1995)
Distribution of family income - Gini index:
25.8 (1995)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
1.3% (2001 est.)
Labor force:
2.4 million (2000 est.)
Labor force - by occupation:
services 74%, industry 22%, agriculture, forestry, and fishing 4% (1995)
Unemployment rate:
3.9% (2002 est.)
revenues: $71.7 billion
expenditures: $57.6 billion, includes capital expenditures of $NA (2000 est.)
petroleum and gas, food processing, shipbuilding, pulp and paper products, metals, chemicals, timber, mining, textiles, fishing
Industrial production growth rate:
1.2% (2002 est.)
Electricity - production:
120.1 billion kWh (2001)
Electricity - production by source:
fossil fuel: 0.4%
hydro: 99.3%
other: 0.4% (2001)
nuclear: 0%
Electricity - consumption:
115.3 billion kWh (2001)
Electricity - exports:
7.162 billion kWh (2001)
Electricity - imports:
10.76 billion kWh (2001)
Oil - production:
3.408 million bbl/day (2001 est.)
Oil - consumption:
171,100 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Oil - exports:
3.466 million bbl/day (2001)
Oil - imports:
88,870 bbl/day (2001)
Oil - proved reserves:
9.859 billion bbl (37257)
Natural gas - production:
54.6 billion cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - consumption:
4.1 billion cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - exports:
50.5 billion cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - imports:
0 cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves:
1.716 trillion cu m (37257)
Agriculture - products:
barley, wheat, potatoes; pork, beef, veal, milk; fish
$68.2 billion f.o.b. (2002 est.)
Exports - commodities:
petroleum and petroleum products, machinery and equipment, metals, chemicals, ships, fish
Exports - partners:
UK 18.1%, Germany 13.8%, France 11%, US 9.2%, Netherlands 8.2%, Sweden 8% (2002)
$37.3 billion f.o.b. (2002 est.)
Imports - commodities:
machinery and equipment, chemicals, metals, foodstuffs
Imports - partners:
Sweden 17.7%, Germany 13.4%, UK 7.8%, Denmark 7.7%, US 5.7%, Netherlands 5.3%, France 4.2%, Italy 4% (2002)
Debt - external:
$0 (Norway is a net external creditor)
Economic aid - donor:
ODA, $1.4 billion (1998)
Norwegian krone (NOK)
Currency code:
Exchange rates:
Norwegian kroner per US dollar - 7.98 (2002), 8.99 (2001), 8.8 (2000), 7.8 (1999), 7.55 (1998)
Fiscal year:
calendar year
Communications Norway
Telephones - main lines in use:
2.735 million (1998)
Telephones - mobile cellular:
2,080,408 (1998)
Telephone system:
general assessment: modern in all respects; one of most advanced telecommunications networks in Europe
domestic: Norway has a domestic satellite system; moreover, prevalence of rural areas encourages wide use of cellular mobile systems instead of fixed-wire systems
international: 2 buried coaxial cable systems; 4 coaxial submarine cables; satellite earth stations - NA Eutelsat, NA Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean), and 1 Inmarsat (Atlantic and Indian Ocean regions); note - Norway shares Inmarsat earth station with other Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Iceland, and Sweden) (1999)
Radio broadcast stations:
AM 5, FM at least 650, shortwave 1 (1998)
4.03 million (1997)
Television broadcast stations:
360 (plus 2,729 repeaters) (1995)
2.03 million (1997)
Internet country code:
Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
13 (2000)
Internet users:
2.68 million (2002)
Transportation Norway
total: 4,178 km
standard gauge: 4,178 km 1.435-m gauge (2,518 km electrified) (2002)
total: 91,454 km
paved: 69,505 km (including 143 km of expressways)
unpaved: 21,949 km (2000)
1,577 km (along west coast)
note: navigable by 2.4 m maximum draft vessels
condensate 411 km; gas 6,199 km; oil 2,213 km; oil/gas/water 746 km; unknown (oil/water) 38 km; water 96 km (2003)
Ports and harbors:
Bergen, Drammen, Floro, Hammerfest, Harstad, Haugesund, Kristiansand, Larvik, Narvik, Oslo, Porsgrunn, Stavanger, Tromso, Trondheim
Merchant marine:
total: 714 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 20,247,207 GRT/30,860,236 DWT
ships by type: bulk 68, cargo 136, chemical tanker 125, combination bulk 5, combination ore/oil 32, container 19, liquefied gas 86, multi-function large load carrier 1, passenger 6, petroleum tanker 127, refrigerated cargo 6, roll on/roll off 44, short-sea passenger 20, specialized tanker 5, vehicle carrier 34
note: includes some foreign-owned ships registered here as a flag of convenience: Australia 1, Denmark 14, Germany 11, Greece 10, Hong Kong 7, Iceland 2, Japan 11, Lithuania 1, Monaco 42, Poland 1, Saudi Arabia 3, Singapore 10, Sweden 42, Switzerland 2, UK 4, US 5 (2002 est.)
102 (2002)
Airports - with paved runways:
total: 66
2,438 to 3,047 m: 13
1,524 to 2,437 m: 13
914 to 1,523 m: 14
under 914 m: 26 (2002)
Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 36
914 to 1,523 m: 7
under 914 m: 29 (2002)
Military Norway
Military branches:
Norwegian Army, Royal Norwegian Navy (including Coast Artillery and Coast Guard), Royal Norwegian Air Force, Home Guard
Military manpower - military age:
20 years of age (2003 est.)
Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 1,099,314 (2003 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service:
males age 15-49: 910,628 (2003 est.)
Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
males: 27,249 (2003 est.)
Military expenditures - dollar figure:
$3.113 billion (FY98/99)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
2.13% (2002)
Transnational Issues Norway
Disputes - international:
Norway asserts a territorial claim in Antarctica (Queen Maud Land and its continental shelf); despite recent discussions, Russia and Norway continue to dispute their maritime limits in Barents Sea and Russia's fishing rights beyond Svalbard's territorial limits within Svalbard Treaty zone