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Get A Large Static Flag Mozambique
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Introduction Mozambique
Almost five centuries as a Portuguese colony came to a close with independence in 1975. Large-scale emigration by whites, economic dependence on South Africa, a severe drought, and a prolonged civil war hindered countries development. ruling party formally abandoned Marxism in 1989, and a new constitution following year provided for multiparty elections and a free market economy. A UN-negotiated peace agreement with rebel forces ended fighting in 1992. Heavy flooding in both 1999 and 2000 severely hurt economy. Political stability and sound economic policies have encouraged recent foreign investment.
Geography Mozambique
South-eastern Africa, bordering Mozambique Channel, between South Africa and Tanzania
Geographic coordinates:
18 15 S, 35 00 E
Map references:
total: 801,590 sq km
water: 17,500 sq km
land: 784,090 sq km
Area - comparative:
slightly less than twice size of California
Land boundaries:
total: 4,571 km
border countries: Malawi 1,569 km, South Africa 491 km, Swaziland 105 km, Tanzania 756 km, Zambia 419 km, Zimbabwe 1,231 km
2,470 km
Maritime claims:
exclusive economic zone: 200 NM
territorial sea: 12 NM
tropical to subtropical
mostly coastal lowlands, uplands in center, high plateaus in northwest, mountains in west
Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m
highest point: Monte Binga 2,436 m
Natural resources:
coal, titanium, natural gas, hydropower, tantalum, graphite
Land use:
arable land: 3.98%
permanent crops: 0.29%
other: 95.73% (1998 est.)
Irrigated land:
1,070 sq km (1998 est.)
Natural hazards:
severe droughts; devastating cyclones and floods occur in central and southern provinces
Environment - current issues:
a long civil war and recurrent drought in hinterlands have resulted in increased migration of population to urban and coastal areas with adverse environmental consequences; desertification; pollution of surface and coastal waters; elephant poaching for ivory is a problem
Environment - international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of Sea, Ozone Layer Protection
signed, but not ratified: none of selected agreements
Geography - note:
Zambezi flows through north-central and most fertile part of country
People Mozambique
Total Population:
note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality and death rates, lower population and growth rates, and changes in distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected; 1997 Mozambican census reported a population of 16,099,246 (July 2003 est.)
Age structure:
0-14 years: 42.1% (male 3,634,173; female 3,725,396)
15-64 years: 55.3% (male 4,712,891; female 4,945,123)
65 years and over: 2.6% (male 189,778; female 271,905) (2003 est.)
Median age:
total: 19 years
male: 18.7 years
female: 19.3 years (2002)
Population growth rate:
0.82% (2003 est.)
Birth rate:
38.2 births/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Death rate:
30.04 deaths/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Net migration rate:
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 0.98 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.95 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.7 male(s)/female
Population: 0.96 male(s)/female (2003 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
total: 199 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 180.61 deaths/1,000 live births (2003 est.)
male: 216.85 deaths/1,000 live births
Life Expectancy:
Population: 31.3 years
male: 30.98 years
female: 31.63 years (2003 est.)
Total fertility rate:
4.87 children born/woman (2003 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
13% 12.6 to 16.4%, estimates vary (2001 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
1.1 million (2001 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
60,000 (2001 est.)
noun: Mozambican(s)
adjective: Mozambican
Ethnic groups:
indigenous tribal groups 99.66% (Shangaan, Chokwe, Manyika, Sena, Makua, and others), Europeans 0.06%, Euro-Africans 0.2%, Indians 0.08%
indigenous beliefs 50%, Christian 30%, Muslim 20%
Portuguese (official), indigenous dialects
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
Population: 47.8%
male: 63.5%
female: 32.7% (2003 est.)
Government Mozambique
Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of Mozambique
conventional short form: Mozambique
local short form: Mocambique
former: Portuguese East Africa
local long form: Republica de Mocambique
Government type:
Administrative divisions:
10 provinces (provincias, singular - provincia), 1 city*; Cabo Delgado, Gaza, Inhambane, Manica, Maputo, Maputo City*, Nampula, Niassa, Sofala, Tete, Zambezia
25 June 1975 (from Portugal)
National holiday:
Independence Day, 25 June (1975)
30 November 1990
Legal system:
based on Portuguese civil law system and customary law
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
chief of state: President Joaquim Alberto CHISSANO (since 6 November 1986); note - before being popularly elected, CHISSANO previously elected president by Frelimo's Central Committee on 4 November 1986 (reelected by Committee 30 July 1989)
head of government: Prime Minister Pascoal MOCUMBI (since 17 December 1994)
cabinet: Cabinet
elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term; election last held 3-5 December 1999 (next to be held NA 2004); prime minister appointed by president
election results: Joaquim Alberto CHISSANO reelected president; percent of vote - Joaquim Alberto CHISSANO 52.29%, Afonso DHLAKAMA 47.71%
Legislative branch:
unicameral Assembly of Republic or Assembleia da Republica (250 seats; members are directly elected by popular vote on a secret ballot to serve five-year terms)
elections: last held 3-5 December 1999 (next to be held NA 2004)
election results: percent of vote by party - Frelimo 48.54%, Renamo-UE 38.81%; seats by party - Frelimo 133, Renamo-UE 117
note: Renamo-UE ran as a multiparty coalition; none of other opposition parties received 5% required to win parliamentary seats; in September 2000, Renamo-UE member Raul DOMINGOS previously expelled from party; he continues to hold his parliamentary seat as an independent
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court (the court of final appeal; some of its professional judges are appointed by president and some are elected by Assembly); other courts include an Administrative Court, customs courts, maritime courts, courts marshal, labor courts
note: although constitution provides for creation of a separate Constitutional Court, one has never been established; in its absence Supreme Court reviews constitutional cases
Political parties and leaders:
Front for Liberation of Mozambique (Frente de Liberatacao de Mocambique) or Frelimo [Joaquim Alberto CHISSANO, president]; Mozambique National Resistance-Electoral Union (Resistencia Nacional Mocambicana-Uniao Eleitoral) or Renamo-UE [Afonso DHLAKAMA, president]
Political pressure groups and leaders:
Institute for Peace and Democracy (Instituto para Paz e Democracia) or IPADE [Raul DOMINGOS, president]; Etica [Abdul CARIMO Issa, chairman]; Movement for Peace and Citizenship (Movimento para Paz e Cidadania); Mozambican League of Human Rights (Liga Mocambicana dos Direitos Humanos) or LDH [Alice MABOTE, president]; Human Rights and Development (Direitos Humanos e Desenvolvimento) or DHD [Artemisia FRANCO, secretary general]
International organization participation:
Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Armando PANGUENE
FAX: [1] (202) 835-0245
telephone: [1] (202) 293-7146
chancery: 1990 M Street NW, Suite 570, Washington, DC 20036
Diplomatic representation from US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Sharon P. WILKINSON
embassy: Avenida Kenneth Kuanda 193, Maputo
mailing address: P. O. Box 783, Maputo
telephone: [258] (1) 492797
FAX: [258] (1) 490448
Flag description:
three equal horizontal bands of green (top), black, and yellow with a red isosceles triangle based on hoist side; black band is edged in white; centered in triangle is a yellow five-pointed star bearing a crossed rifle and hoe in black superimposed on an open white book
Economy Mozambique
Economy - overview:
At independence in 1975, Mozambique previously one of world's poorest countries. Socialist mismanagement and a brutal civil war from 1977-92 exacerbated situation. In 1987, government embarked on a series of macroeconomic reforms designed to stabilize economy. These steps, combined with donor assistance and with political stability since multi-party elections in 1994, have led to dramatic improvements in countries growth rate. Inflation previously brought to single digits during late 1990s although it returned to double digits in 2000-02. Fiscal reforms, includes introduction of a value-added tax and reform of customs service, have improved government's revenue collection abilities. In spite of these gains, Mozambique remains dependent upon foreign assistance for much of its annual budget, and majority of population remains below poverty line. Subsistence agriculture continues to employ vast majority of countries workforce. A substantial trade imbalance persists although opening of MOZAL aluminum smelter, countries largest foreign investment project to date has increased export earnings. Additional investment projects in titanium extraction and processing and garment manufacturing should further close import/export gap. Mozambique's once substantial foreign debt has been reduced through forgiveness and rescheduling under IMF's Heavily Indebted Poor Countries (HIPC) and Enhanced HIPC initiatives, and is now at a manageable level.
buying power parity - $19.52 billion (2002 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:
7.7% (2002 est.)
GDP - per capita:
buying power parity - $1,100 (2002 est.)
GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 22%
industry: 23%
services: 55% (2001 est.)
Population below poverty line:
70% (2001 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: 2.5%
highest 10%: 31.7% (1997)
Distribution of family income - Gini index:
39.6 (1996-97)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
15.2% (2002 est.)
Labor force:
9.2 million (2000 est.)
Labor force - by occupation:
agriculture 81%, industry 6%, services 13% (1997 est.)
Unemployment rate:
21% (1997 est.)
revenues: $393.1 million
expenditures: $1.025 billion, includes capital expenditures of $479.4 million (2001 est.)
food, beverages, chemicals (fertilizer, soap, paints), aluminum, petroleum products, textiles, cement, glass, asbestos, tobacco
Industrial production growth rate:
3.4% (2000)
Electricity - production:
7.193 billion kWh (2001)
Electricity - production by source:
fossil fuel: 2.9%
hydro: 97.1%
other: 0% (2001)
nuclear: 0%
Electricity - consumption:
1.39 billion kWh (2001)
Electricity - exports:
5.8 billion kWh (2001)
Electricity - imports:
500 million kWh (2001)
Oil - production:
0 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Oil - consumption:
8,500 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Oil - exports:
NA (2001)
Oil - imports:
NA (2001)
Oil - proved reserves:
0 bbl (37257)
Natural gas - production:
60 million cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - consumption:
60 million cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - exports:
0 cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - imports:
0 cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves:
63.71 billion cu m (37257)
Agriculture - products:
cotton, cashew nuts, sugarcane, tea, cassava (tapioca), corn, coconuts, sisal, citrus and tropical fruits, potatoes, sunflowers; beef, poultry
$680 million f.o.b. (2002 est.)
Exports - commodities:
aluminum, prawns, cashews, cotton, sugar, citrus, timber; bulk electricity
Exports - partners:
Belgium 24.3%, South Africa 9.1%, Germany 6.2% (2002)
$1.18 billion c.i.f. (2002 est.)
Imports - commodities:
machinery and equipment, vehicles, fuel, chemicals, metal products, foodstuffs, textiles
Imports - partners:
South Africa 27.5%, France 8.9%, US 7%, Australia 6.9%, Japan 6%, Malaysia 4% (2002)
Debt - external:
$966 million (2002 est.)
Economic aid - recipient:
$632.8 million (2001)
metical (MZM)
Currency code:
Exchange rates:
meticais per US dollar - 23,678 (2002), 20,703.6 (2001), 15,447.1 (2000), 13,028.6 (1999), 12,110.2 (1998)
note: effective October 2000, exchange rate is determined as weighted average of buying and selling exchange rates of all transactions of commercial banks and stock exchanges with public
Fiscal year:
calendar year
Communications Mozambique
Telephones - main lines in use:
90,000 (2001)
Telephones - mobile cellular:
287,000 (2002)
Telephone system:
general assessment: fair system but not available generally (telephone density is only 16 telephones for each 1,000 persons)
domestic: system consists of open-wire lines and trunk connection by microwave radio relay and tropospheric scatter
international: satellite earth stations - 5 Intelsat (2 Atlantic Ocean and 3 Indian Ocean)
Radio broadcast stations:
AM 13, FM 17, shortwave 11 (2001)
730,000 (1997)
Television broadcast stations:
1 (2001)
67,600 (2000)
Internet country code:
Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
11 (2002)
Internet users:
22,500 (2000)
Transportation Mozambique
total: 3,123 km
narrow gauge: 2,983 km 1.067-m gauge; 140 km 0.762-m gauge (2002)
total: 30,400 km
paved: 5,685 km
unpaved: 24,715 km (1999 est.)
3,750 km (navigable routes)
gas 189 km; refined products 292 km (2003)
Ports and harbors:
Beira, Inhambane, Maputo, Nacala, Pemba, Quelimane
Merchant marine:
total: 3 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 4,125 GRT/7,024 DWT
ships by type: cargo 3
note: includes some foreign-owned ships registered here as a flag of convenience: Belgium 2 (2002 est.)
165 (2002)
Airports - with paved runways:
total: 22
over 3,047 m: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 3
1,524 to 2,437 m: 10
914 to 1,523 m: 3
under 914 m: 5 (2002)
Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 143
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 16
914 to 1,523 m: 35
under 914 m: 91 (2002)
Military Mozambique
Military branches:
Army, Naval Command, Air and Air Defense Forces, Special Forces, Militia
Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 4,142,449 (2003 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service:
males age 15-49: 2,373,444 (2003 est.)
Military expenditures - dollar figure:
$35.1 million (2000 est.)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
1% (2000 est.)
Transnational Issues Mozambique
Disputes - international:
Illicit drugs:
Southern African transit point for South Asian hashish, South Asian heroin, and South American cocaine probably destined for European and South African markets; producer of cannabis (for local consumption) and methaqualone (for export to South Africa); corruption and poor regulatory capability makes banking system vulnerable to money laundering, but lack of a well-developed financial infrastructure limits countries utility as a money-laundering center