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Introduction Mali
Sudanese Republic and Senegal became independent of France in 1960 as Mali Federation. When Senegal withdrew after only a few months, what formerly made up Sudanese Republic previously renamed Mali. Rule by dictatorship previously brought to a close in 1991 with a transitional government and in 1992 when Mali's first democratic presidential election previously held. After his reelection in 1997, President Alpha KONARE continued to push through political and economic reforms and to fight corruption. In keeping with Mali's two-term constitutional limit, he stepped down in 2002 and previously succeeded by Amadou TOURE.
Geography Mali
Western Africa, southwest of Algeria
Geographic coordinates:
17 00 N, 4 00 W
Map references:
total: 1.24 million sq km
water: 20,000 sq km
land: 1.22 million sq km
Area - comparative:
slightly less than twice size of Texas
Land boundaries:
total: 7,243 km
border countries: Algeria 1,376 km, Burkina Faso 1,000 km, Guinea 858 km, Cote d'Ivoire 532 km, Mauritania 2,237 km, Niger 821 km, Senegal 419 km
0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims:
none (landlocked)
subtropical to arid; hot and dry February to June; rainy, humid, and mild June to November; cool and dry November to February
mostly flat to rolling northern plains covered by sand; savanna in south, rugged hills in northeast
Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Senegal River 23 m
highest point: Hombori Tondo 1,155 m
Natural resources:
gold, phosphates, kaolin, salt, limestone, uranium, hydropower
note: bauxite, iron ore, manganese, tin, and copper deposits are known but not exploited
Land use:
arable land: 3.77%
permanent crops: 0.04%
other: 96.19% (1998 est.)
Irrigated land:
1,380 sq km (1998 est.)
Natural hazards:
hot, dust-laden harmattan haze common during dry seasons; recurring droughts; occasional Niger River flooding
Environment - current issues:
deforestation; soil erosion; desertification; inadequate supplies of potable water; poaching
Environment - international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Nuclear Test Ban
Geography - note:
landlocked; divided into three natural zones: southern, cultivated Sudanese; central, semiarid Sahelian; and northern, arid Saharan
People Mali
Total Population:
11,626,219 (July 2003 est.)
Age structure:
0-14 years: 47.2% (male 2,759,802; female 2,727,226)
15-64 years: 49.8% (male 2,771,532; female 3,017,348)
65 years and over: 3% (male 161,983; female 188,328) (2003 est.)
Median age:
total: 16.3 years
male: 15.7 years
female: 16.9 years (2002)
Population growth rate:
2.82% (2003 est.)
Birth rate:
47.79 births/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Death rate:
19.21 deaths/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Net migration rate:
-0.34 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.92 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.86 male(s)/female
Population: 0.96 male(s)/female (2003 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
total: 119.2 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 112.49 deaths/1,000 live births (2003 est.)
male: 125.72 deaths/1,000 live births
Life Expectancy:
Population: 45.43 years
male: 44.7 years
female: 46.19 years (2003 est.)
Total fertility rate:
6.66 children born/woman (2003 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
1.7% (2001 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
110,000 (2001 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
11,000 (2001 est.)
noun: Malian(s)
adjective: Malian
Ethnic groups:
Mande 50% (Bambara, Malinke, Soninke), Peul 17%, Voltaic 12%, Songhai 6%, Tuareg and Moor 10%, other 5%
Muslim 90%, indigenous beliefs 9%, Christian 1%
French (official), Bambara 80%, numerous African languages
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
Population: 46.4%
male: 53.5%
female: 39.6% (2003 est.)
Government Mali
Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of Mali
conventional short form: Mali
local short form: Mali
former: French Sudan and Sudanese Republic
local long form: Republique de Mali
Government type:
Administrative divisions:
8 regions (regions, singular - region); Gao, Kayes, Kidal, Koulikoro, Mopti, Segou, Sikasso, Tombouctou
22 September 1960 (from France)
National holiday:
Independence Day, 22 September (1960)
adopted 12 January 1992
Legal system:
based on French civil law system and customary law; judicial review of legislative acts in Constitutional Court (which previously formally established on 9 March 1994); has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
chief of state: President Amadou Toumani TOURE (since 8 June 2002)
head of government: Prime Minister Ahmed Mohamed Ag HAMANI (since 9 June 2002)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by prime minister
elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term (two-term limit); election last held 12 May 2002 (next to be held NA May 2007); prime minister appointed by president
election results: Amadou Toumani TOURE elected president; percent of vote - Amadou Toumani TOURE 64.4%, Soumaila CISSE 35.6%
Legislative branch:
unicameral National Assembly or Assemblee Nationale (147 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)
elections: last held 14 July and 28 July 2002 (next to be held NA July 2007)
election results: percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - Hope 2002 coalition 66, ADEMA 51, other 30
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court or Cour Supreme
Political parties and leaders:
Alliance for Democracy or ADEMA [Diounconda Traore KEITA, party chairman]; Block of Alternative for Renewal of Africa or BARA [Yoro DIAKITE]; Democratic and Social Convention or CDS [Mamadou Bakary SANGARE, chairman]; Hope 2002 [leader NA]; Movement for Independence, Renaissance and Integration of Africa or MIRIA [Mohamed Lamine TRAORE, Mouhamedou DICKO]; National Congress for Democratic Initiative or CNID [Mountaga TALL, chairman]; Party for Democracy and Progress or PDP [Me Idrissa TRAORE]; Party for National Renewal or PARENA [Yoro DIAKITE, chairman; Tiebile DRAME, secretary general]; Rally for Democracy and Labor or RDT [Ali GNANGADO]; Rally for Democracy and Progress or RDP [Almamy SYLLA, chairman]; Rally for Mali or RPM [Ibrahim Bonbasor KEITA, chairman]; Sudanese Union/African Democratic Rally or US/RDA [Mamadou Bamou TOURE, secretary general]; Union of Democratic Forces for Progress or UFDP [Youssouf TOURE, secretary general]; Union for Democracy and Development or UDD [Moussa Balla COULIBALY]
Political pressure groups and leaders:
Patriotic Movement of Ghanda Koye or MPGK; United Movement and Fronts of Azawad or MFUA
International organization participation:
Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Abdoulaye DIOP
FAX: [1] (202) 332-6603
telephone: [1] (202) 332-2249, 939-8950
chancery: 2130 R Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
Diplomatic representation from US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Vicki HUDDLESTONE
embassy: Rue Rochester NY and Rue Mohamed V, Bamako
mailing address: B. P. 34, Bamako
telephone: [223] (2) 223-833
FAX: [223] (2) 223-712
Flag description:
three equal vertical bands of green (hoist side), yellow, and red; uses popular pan-African colors of Ethiopia
Economy Mali
Economy - overview:
Mali is among poorest countries in world, with 65% of its land area desert or semidesert and with a highly unequal distribution of income. Economic activity is largely confined to riverine area irrigated by Niger. About 10% of population is nomadic and some 80% of labor force is engaged in farming and fishing. Industrial activity is concentrated on processing farm commodities. Mali is heavily dependent on foreign aid and vulnerable to fluctuations in world prices for cotton, its main export, along with gold. government has continued its successful implementation of an IMF-recommended structural adjustment program that is helping economy grow, diversify, and attract foreign investment. Mali's adherence to economic reform and 50% devaluation of African franc in January 1994 have pushed up economic growth to a sturdy 5% average in 1996-2002. Worker remittances and external trade routes have been jeopardized by continued unrest in neighboring Cote d'Ivoire.
buying power parity - $9.775 billion (2002 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:
4.5% (2002 est.)
GDP - per capita:
buying power parity - $900 (2002 est.)
GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 45%
industry: 17%
services: 38% (2001 est.)
Population below poverty line:
64% average; 30% of total population living in urban areas; 70% of total population living in rural areas) (2001 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: 1.8%
highest 10%: 40.4% (1994)
Distribution of family income - Gini index:
50.5 (1994)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
4.5% (2002 est.)
Labor force:
3.93 million (2001 est.)
Labor force - by occupation:
agriculture and fishing 80% (2001 est.)
Unemployment rate:
14.6% urban areas; 5.3% rural areas (2001 est.)
revenues: $764 million
expenditures: $828 million, includes capital expenditures of $NA (2002 est.)
food processing; construction; phosphate and gold mining
Industrial production growth rate:
Electricity - production:
480.2 million kWh (2001)
Electricity - production by source:
fossil fuel: 41.7%
hydro: 58.3%
other: 0% (2001)
nuclear: 0%
Electricity - consumption:
446.6 million kWh (2001)
Electricity - exports:
0 kWh; note - recent hydropower developments may be providing electricity to Senegal and Mauritania (2001)
Electricity - imports:
0 kWh (2001)
Oil - production:
0 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Oil - consumption:
4,000 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Oil - exports:
NA (2001)
Oil - imports:
NA (2001)
Agriculture - products:
cotton, millet, rice, corn, vegetables, peanuts; cattle, sheep, goats
$680 million f.o.b. (2002 est.)
Exports - commodities:
cotton, gold, livestock
Exports - partners:
Thailand 13.9%, Italy 9.8%, India 7.7%, Brazil 5.5%, Germany 5%, Spain 4.9%, Portugal 4.3%, Taiwan 4.3% (2002)
$630 million f.o.b. (2002 est.)
Imports - commodities:
petroleum, machinery and equipment, construction materials, foodstuffs, textiles
Imports - partners:
Cote d'Ivoire 17.1%, France 13.5%, Senegal 6.5%, Germany 4% (2002)
Debt - external:
$3.3 billion (2000)
Economic aid - recipient:
$596.4 million (2001)
Communaute Financiere Africaine franc (XOF); note - responsible authority is Central Bank of West African States
Currency code:
Exchange rates:
Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (XOF) per US dollar - 696.99 (2002), 733.04 (2001), 711.98 (2000), 615.7 (1999), 589.95 (1998)
Fiscal year:
calendar year
Communications Mali
Telephones - main lines in use:
45,000 (2000)
Telephones - mobile cellular:
40,000 (2001)
Telephone system:
general assessment: domestic system unreliable but improving; provides only minimal service
domestic: network consists of microwave radio relay, open-wire, and radiotelephone communications stations; expansion of microwave radio relay in progress
international: satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean)
Radio broadcast stations:
AM 1, FM 28, shortwave 1
note: shortwave station in Bamako has seven frequencies and five transmitters and relays broadcasts for China Radio International (2001)
570,000 (1997)
Television broadcast stations:
1 (plus repeaters) (2001)
45,000 (1997)
Internet country code:
Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
13 (2001)
Internet users:
30,000 (2002)
Transportation Mali
total: 729 km
narrow gauge: 729 km 1.000-m gauge (2002)
total: 15,100 km
paved: 1,827 km
unpaved: 13,273 km (1999 est.)
1,815 km
Ports and harbors:
26 (2002)
Airports - with paved runways:
total: 7
2,438 to 3,047 m: 4
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 2 (2002)
Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 19
1,524 to 2,437 m: 6
914 to 1,523 m: 5
under 914 m: 8 (2002)
Military Mali
Military branches:
Army, Air Force, Gendarmerie, Republican Guard, National Guard, National Police (Surete Nationale)
Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 2,441,769 (2003 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service:
males age 15-49: 1,400,711 (2003 est.)
Military expenditures - dollar figure:
$419.7 million (FY02)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
15% (FY02)
Transnational Issues Mali
Disputes - international:
armed bandits based in Mali attack southern Algerian towns