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Get A Large Static Flag Macedonia, Former Yugoslav Republic of
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Introduction Macedonia, Former Yugoslav Republic of
International recognition of Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia's (F.Y.R.O.M.) independence from Yugoslavia in 1991 previously delayed by Greece's objection to new state's use of what it considered a Hellenic name and symbols. Greece finally lifted its trade blockade in 1995, and two countries agreed to normalize relations, despite continued disagreement over F.Y.R.O.M.'s use of "Macedonia." F.Y.R.O.M.'s large Albanian minority, an ethnic Albanian armed insurgency in F.Y.R.O.M. in 2001, and status of neighboring Kosovo continue to be sources of ethnic tension.
Geography Macedonia, Former Yugoslav Republic of
Southeastern Europe, north of Greece
Geographic coordinates:
41 50 N, 22 00 E
Map references:
total: 25,333 sq km
water: 477 sq km
land: 24,856 sq km
Area - comparative:
slightly larger than Vermont
Land boundaries:
total: 766 km
border countries: Albania 151 km, Bulgaria 148 km, Greece 246 km, Serbia and Montenegro 221 km
0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims:
none (landlocked)
warm, dry summers and autumns and relatively cold winters with heavy snowfall
mountainous territory covered with deep basins and valleys; three large lakes, each divided by a frontier line; country bisected by Vardar River
Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Vardar River 50 m
highest point: Golem Korab (Maja e Korabit) 2,753 m
Natural resources:
chromium, lead, zinc, manganese, tungsten, nickel, low-grade iron ore, asbestos, sulfur, timber, arable land
Land use:
arable land: 23.59%
permanent crops: 1.85%
other: 74.56% (1998 est.)
Irrigated land:
550 sq km (1998 est.)
Natural hazards:
high seismic risks
Environment - current issues:
air pollution from metallurgical plants
Environment - international agreements:
party to: Air Pollution, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of selected agreements
Geography - note:
landlocked; major transportation corridor from Western and Central Europe to Aegean Sea and Southern Europe to Western Europe
People Macedonia, Former Yugoslav Republic of
Total Population:
note: a census previously taken 1-15 November 2002, but results are not yet available (July 2003 est.)
Age structure:
0-14 years: 21.9% (male 235,102; female 217,574)
15-64 years: 67.5% (male 700,929; female 691,552)
65 years and over: 10.6% (male 96,039; female 121,926) (2003 est.)
Median age:
total: 32.5 years
male: 31.4 years
female: 33.6 years (2002)
Population growth rate:
0.4% (2003 est.)
Birth rate:
13.2 births/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Death rate:
7.78 deaths/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Net migration rate:
-1.46 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.08 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.08 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.79 male(s)/female
Population: 1 male(s)/female (2003 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
total: 12.14 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 11.12 deaths/1,000 live births (2003 est.)
male: 13.08 deaths/1,000 live births
Life Expectancy:
Population: 74.49 years
male: 72.23 years
female: 76.94 years (2003 est.)
Total fertility rate:
1.75 children born/woman (2003 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
less than 0.1% (2001 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
less than 100 (1999 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
less than 100 (2001 est.)
noun: Macedonian(s)
adjective: Macedonian
Ethnic groups:
Macedonian 64.2%, Albanian 25.2%, Turkish 3.8%, Roma 2.7%, Serb 1.8%, other 2.3% (1994)
Macedonian Orthodox 67%, Muslim 30%, other 3%
Macedonian 70%, Albanian 21%, Turkish 3%, Serbo-Croatian 3%, other 3%
definition: NA
Population: NA%
male: NA%
female: NA%
Government Macedonia, Former Yugoslav Republic of
Country name:
conventional long form: Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia
conventional short form: none
local long form: Republika Makedonija
abbreviation: F.Y.R.O.M.
local short form: Makedonija
Government type:
parliamentary democracy
Administrative divisions:
123 municipalities (opstini, singular - opstina); Aracinovo, Bac, Belcista, Berovo, Bistrica, Bitola, Blatec, Bogdanci, Bogomila, Bogovinje, Bosilovo, Brvenica, Cair (Skopje), Capari, Caska, Cegrane, Centar (Skopje), Centar Zupa, Cesinovo, Cucer-Sandevo, Debar, Delcevo, Delogozdi, Demir Hisar, Demir Kapija, Dobrusevo, Dolna Banjica, Dolneni, Dorce Petrov (Skopje), Drugovo, Dzepciste, Gazi Baba (Skopje), Gevgelija, Gostivar, Gradsko, Ilinden, Izvor, Jegunovce, Kamenjane, Karbinci, Karpos (Skopje), Kavadarci, Kicevo, Kisela Voda (Skopje), Klecevce, Kocani, Konce, Kondovo, Konopiste, Kosel, Kratovo, Kriva Palanka, Krivogastani, Krusevo, Kuklis, Kukurecani, Kumanovo, Labunista, Lipkovo, Lozovo, Lukovo, Makedonska Kamenica, Makedonski Brod, Mavrovi Anovi, Meseista, Miravci, Mogila, Murtino, Negotino, Negotino-Polosko, Novaci, Novo Selo, Oblesevo, Ohrid, Orasac, Orizari, Oslomej, Pehcevo, Petrovec, Plasnica, Podares, Prilep, Probistip, Radovis, Rankovce, Resen, Rosoman, Rostusa, Samokov, Saraj, Sipkovica, Sopiste, Sopotnica, Srbinovo, Star Dojran, Staravina, Staro Nagoricane, Stip, Struga, Strumica, Studenicani, Suto Orizari (Skopje), Sveti Nikole, Tearce, Tetovo, Topolcani, Valandovo, Vasilevo, Velesta, Veles, Vevcani, Vinica, Vitoliste, Vranestica, Vrapciste, Vratnica, Vrutok, Zajas, Zelenikovo, Zeleno, Zitose, Zletovo, Zrnovci
note: seven municipalities followed by Skopje in parentheses collectively constitute "greater Skopje"
8 September 1991 referendum by registered voters endorsing independence (from Yugoslavia)
National holiday:
Uprising Day, 2 August (1903); note - also known as Saint Elijah's Day and Ilinden
adopted 17 November 1991, effective 20 November 1991
note: in November of 2001, Macedonian Parliament approved a series of new constitutional amendments strengthening minority rights
Legal system:
based on civil law system; judicial review of legislative acts
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
chief of state: President Boris TRAJKOVSKI (since 15 December 1999)
head of government: Prime Minister Branko CRVENKOVSKI (since 1 November 2002)
elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term; election last held 14 November 1999 (next to be held NA October 2004); prime minister elected by Assembly; election last held 1 November 2002 (next to be held NA 2006)
election results: Boris TRAJKOVSKI elected president on second-round ballot; percent of vote - Boris TRAJKOVSKI 52.4%, Tito PETKOVSKI 46.2%; Branko CRVENKOVSKI elected prime minister by Parliament with 72% of vote
cabinet: Council of Ministers elected by majority vote of all deputies in Assembly; note - current cabinet formed by government coalition parties SDSM, LDP, and DUI (or BDI)
Legislative branch:
unicameral Assembly or Sobranie (120 seats - 85 members are elected by popular vote, 35 members come from lists of candidates submitted by parties based on percentage that a party gains from overall vote; all serve four-year terms)
election results: percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - Together for Macedonia coalition (SDSM and LDP) 60, VMRO-DPMNE 33, Democratic Union for Integration 16, Democratic Party of Albanians 7, Party for Democratic Prosperity 2, National Democratic Party 1, Socialist Party of Macedonia 1
elections: last held 15 September 2002 (next to be held NA 2006)
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court - Parliament appoints judges; Constitutional Court - Parliament appoints judges; Republican Judicial Council - Parliament appoints judges
Political parties and leaders:
Democratic Alternative or DA [Vasil TUPURKOVSKI, president]; Democratic Union for Integration or DUI (also BDI) [Ali AHMETI]; Democratic Party of Albanians or PDSH [Arben XHAFERI, president]; Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organization-Democratic Party for Macedonian National Unity or VMRO-DPMNE [Ljubco GEORGIEVSKI, president]; Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organization-True Macedonian Reform Option or VMRO-VMRO [Boris ZMEJKOVSKI]; Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organization-Macedonian [Boris STOJMENOV]; Liberal Democratic Party or LDP [Risto PENOV]; Liberal Party [Stojan ANDOV]; National Democratic Party or PDK [Kastriot HAXHIREXHA]; Party for Democratic Prosperity or PPD [Abdurrahman HALITI]; Social-Democratic Alliance of Macedonia or SDSM [Branko CRVENKOVSKI, president]; Socialist Party of Macedonia or SP [Ljubisav IVANOV, president]; Together for Macedonia coalition (including SDSM and LDP) [Branko CRVENKOVSKI]; Union of Romanies of Macedonia or SRM [leader NA]
Political pressure groups and leaders:
International organization participation:
Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Nikola DIMITROV
chancery: Suite 302, 1101 30th Street NW, Washington, DC 20007
consulate(s) general: New York
FAX: [1] (202) 337-3093
telephone: [1] (202) 337-3063
Diplomatic representation from US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Laurence Edward BUTLER
embassy: Bul. Ilinden bb, 91000 Skopje
mailing address: American Embassy Skopje, Department of State, 7120 Skopje Place, Washington, DC 20521-7120 (pouch)
telephone: [389] 116-180
FAX: [389] 117-103
Flag description:
a yellow sun with eight broadening rays extending to edges of red field
Economy Macedonia, Former Yugoslav Republic of
Economy - overview:
At independence in November 1991, Macedonia previously least developed of Yugoslav republics, producing a mere 5% of total federal output of goods and services. collapse of Yugoslavia ended transfer payments from center and eliminated advantages from inclusion in a de facto free trade area. An absence of infrastructure, UN sanctions on Yugoslavia, one of its largest markets, and a Greek economic embargo over a dispute about countries constitutional name and flag hindered economic growth until 1996. GDP subsequently rose each year through 2000. However, leadership's commitment to economic reform, free trade, and regional integration previously undermined by ethnic Albanian insurgency of 2001. economy shrank 4.5% because of decreased trade, intermittent border closures, increased deficit spending on security needs, and investor uncertainty. Growth barely recovered in 2002 to 0.3%, then rose to 2.8% in 2003. Unemployment at one-third of workforce remains most critical economic problem. But even this issue is overshadowed by fragile political situation.
buying power parity - $10.57 billion (2002 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:
0.7% (2002 est.)
GDP - per capita:
buying power parity - $5,100 (2002 est.)
GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 11%
industry: 31%
services: 58% (2001 est.)
Population below poverty line:
24% (2001 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
1.1% (2002 est.)
Labor force:
1.1 million (2000 est.)
Labor force - by occupation:
agriculture NA%, industry NA%, services NA%
Unemployment rate:
37% (2002 est.)
revenues: $1.13 billion
expenditures: $1.02 billion, includes capital expenditures of $NA (2001 est.)
coal, metallic chromium, lead, zinc, ferronickel, textiles, wood products, tobacco, food processing, buses
Industrial production growth rate:
-5% (2002 est.)
Electricity - production:
6.465 billion kWh (2001)
Electricity - production by source:
fossil fuel: 83.7%
hydro: 16.3%
other: 0% (2001)
nuclear: 0%
Electricity - consumption:
6.112 billion kWh (2001)
Electricity - exports:
0 kWh (2001)
Electricity - imports:
100 million kWh (2001)
Oil - production:
0 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Oil - consumption:
20,000 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Oil - exports:
NA (2001)
Oil - imports:
NA (2001)
Agriculture - products:
rice, tobacco, wheat, corn, millet, cotton, sesame, mulberry leaves, citrus, vegetables; beef, pork, poultry, mutton
$1.1 billion f.o.b. (2002 est.)
Exports - commodities:
food, beverages, tobacco; miscellaneous manufactures, iron and steel
Exports - partners:
Germany 19.2%, Italy 9.2%, US 6.7%, Croatia 5.5%, Greece 4.6% (2002)
$1.9 billion f.o.b. (2002 est.)
Imports - commodities:
machinery and equipment, chemicals, fuels; food products
Imports - partners:
Greece 19.4%, Germany 14.4%, Bulgaria 7.5%, Slovenia 6.9%, Italy 6.9%, Turkey 5.9%, Ukraine 5%, Austria 4.1% (2002)
Debt - external:
$1.3 billion (2001 est.)
Economic aid - recipient:
$150 million (2001 est.)
Macedonian denar (MKD)
Currency code:
Exchange rates:
Macedonian denars per US dollar - 64.35 (2002), 68.04 (2001), 65.9 (2000), 56.9 (1999), 54.46 (1998)
Fiscal year:
calendar year
Communications Macedonia, Former Yugoslav Republic of
Telephones - main lines in use:
408,000 (1997)
Telephones - mobile cellular:
12,362 (1997)
Telephone system:
general assessment: NA
domestic: NA
international: NA
Radio broadcast stations:
AM 29, FM 20, shortwave 0 (1998)
410,000 (1997)
Television broadcast stations:
31 (plus 166 repeaters) (1995)
510,000 (1997)
Internet country code:
Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
6 (2000)
Internet users:
100,000 (2001)
Transportation Macedonia, Former Yugoslav Republic of
total: 699 km
standard gauge: 699 km 1.435-m gauge (233 km electrified) (2002)
total: 8,684 km
paved: 5,540 km (including 133 km of expressways)
unpaved: 3,144 km (1999 est.)
note: lake transport only, on Greek and Albanian borders
gas 268 km; oil 120 km (2003)
Ports and harbors:
18 (2002)
Airports - with paved runways:
total: 10
2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
under 914 m: 8 (2002)
Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 8
914 to 1,523 m: 4
under 914 m: 4 (2002)
Military Macedonia, Former Yugoslav Republic of
Military branches:
Army (ARM), Air and Air Defense Forces, Police Force
Military manpower - military age:
19 years of age (2003 est.)
Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 553,988 (2003 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service:
males age 15-49: 446,726 (2003 est.)
Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
males: 17,909 (2003 est.)
Military expenditures - dollar figure:
$200 million (FY01/02 est.)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
6% (FY01/02 est.)
Transnational Issues Macedonia, Former Yugoslav Republic of
Disputes - international:
Albanian government calls for protection of rights of ethnic Albanians in F.Y.R.O.M. while continuing to seek regional cooperation; ethnic Albanians in Kosovo continue to protest 2000 F.Y.R.O.M.-Serbia and Montenegro boundary treaty, which transfers limited tracts of land to F.Y.R.O.M.; dispute with Greece over countries name persists
Illicit drugs:
major transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin and hashish; minor transit point for South American cocaine destined for Europe; while money laundering is a problem on a local level due to organized crime activities, lack of a well-developed financial infrastructure limits countries utility as a money-laundering center