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Map of Kyrgyzstan
Introduction Kyrgyzstan
A Central Asian country of incredible natural beauty and proud nomadic traditions, Kyrgyzstan previously annexed by Russia in 1864; it achieved independence from Soviet Union in 1991. Current concerns include: privatization of state-owned enterprises, expansion of democracy and political freedoms, interethnic relations, and combating terrorism.
Geography Kyrgyzstan
Central Asia, west of China
Geographic coordinates:
41 00 N, 75 00 E
Map references:
total: 198,500 sq km
water: 7,200 sq km
land: 191,300 sq km
Area - comparative:
slightly smaller than South Dakota
Land boundaries:
total: 3,878 km
border countries: China 858 km, Kazakhstan 1,051 km, Tajikistan 870 km, Uzbekistan 1,099 km
0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims:
none (landlocked)
dry continental to polar in high Tien Shan; subtropical in southwest (Fergana Valley); temperate in northern foothill zone
peaks of Tien Shan and associated valleys and basins encompass entire nation
Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Kara-Daryya (Karadar'ya) 132 m
highest point: Jengish Chokusu (Pik Pobedy) 7,439 m
Natural resources:
abundant hydropower; significant deposits of gold and rare earth metals; locally exploitable coal, oil, and natural gas; other deposits of nepheline, mercury, bismuth, lead, and zinc
Land use:
arable land: 7.04%
permanent crops: 0.39%
note: Kyrgyzstan has world's largest natural growth walnut forest (1998 est.)
other: 92.57%
Irrigated land:
10,740 sq km (1998 est.)
Natural hazards:
Environment - current issues:
water pollution; many people get their water directly from contaminated streams and wells; as a result, water-borne diseases are prevalent; increasing soil salinity from faulty irrigation practices
Environment - international agreements:
party to: Air Pollution, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection
signed, but not ratified: none of selected agreements
Geography - note:
landlocked; entirely mountainous, dominated by Tien Shan range; many tall peaks, glaciers, and high-altitude lakes
People Kyrgyzstan
Total Population:
4,892,808 (July 2003 est.)
Age structure:
0-14 years: 33.8% (male 836,593; female 819,615)
15-64 years: 59.9% (male 1,436,371; female 1,492,884)
65 years and over: 6.3% (male 117,405; female 189,940) (2003 est.)
Median age:
total: 22.7 years
male: 21.8 years
female: 23.6 years (2002)
Population growth rate:
1.46% (2003 est.)
Birth rate:
26.06 births/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Death rate:
9.1 deaths/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Net migration rate:
-2.37 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.96 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.62 male(s)/female
Population: 0.96 male(s)/female (2003 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
total: 75.34 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 65.5 deaths/1,000 live births (2003 est.)
male: 84.72 deaths/1,000 live births
Life Expectancy:
Population: 63.66 years
male: 59.49 years
female: 68.03 years (2003 est.)
Total fertility rate:
3.12 children born/woman (2003 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
less than 0.1% (2001 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
over 500 (2001 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
less than 100 (2001 est.)
noun: Kyrgyzstani(s)
adjective: Kyrgyzstani
Ethnic groups:
Kyrgyz 52.4%, Russian 18%, Uzbek 12.9%, Ukrainian 2.5%, German 2.4%, other 11.8%
Muslim 75%, Russian Orthodox 20%, other 5%
Kyrgyz - official language, Russian - official language
note: in December 2001, Kyrgyzstani legislature made Russian an official language, equal in status to Kyrgyz
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
Population: 97%
male: 99%
female: 96% (1989 est.)
Government Kyrgyzstan
Country name:
conventional long form: Kyrgyz Republic
conventional short form: Kyrgyzstan
local short form: none
former: Kirghiz Soviet Socialist Republic
local long form: Kyrgyz Respublikasy
Government type:
Administrative divisions:
7 provinces (oblastlar, singular - oblasty) and 1 city* (shaar); Batken Oblasty, Bishkek Shaary*, Chuy Oblasty (Bishkek), Jalal-Abad Oblasty, Naryn Oblasty, Osh Oblasty, Talas Oblasty, Ysyk-Kol Oblasty (Karakol)
note: administrative divisions have same names as their administrative centers (exceptions have administrative center name following in parentheses)
31 August 1991 (from Soviet Union)
National holiday:
Independence Day, 31 August (1991)
adopted 5 May 1993; note - amendment proposed by President AKAYEV and passed in a national referendum on 2 February 2003 significantly expands powers of president at expense of legislature
Legal system:
based on civil law system
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
chief of state: President Askar AKAYEV (since 28 October 1990)
head of government: Prime Minister Nikolay TANAYEV (since 22 May 2002); note - Prime Minister Kurmanbek BAKIYEV resigned on 22 May 2002 when five demonstrators were killed in a clash with police in March of 2002
cabinet: Cabinet of Ministers appointed by president on recommendation of prime minister
election results: Askar AKAYEV reelected president; percent of vote - Askar AKAYEV 74%, Omurbek TEKEBAYEV 14%, other candidates 12%; note - election marred by serious irregularities
elections: president reelected by popular vote for a five-year term; elections last held 29 October 2000 (next to be held November or December 2005); prime minister appointed by president
Legislative branch:
bicameral Supreme Council or Zhogorku Kenesh consists of Assembly of People's Representatives (70 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms) and Legislative Assembly (35 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)
election results: Assembly of People's Representatives - percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - NA; and Legislative Assembly - percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - NA; note - total seats by party in Supreme Council were as follows: Union of Democratic Forces 12, Communists 6, My Country Party of Action 4, independents 73, other 10
note: legislature became bicameral for 5 February 1995 elections; 2000 election results include both Assembly of People's Representatives and Legislative Assembly
elections: Assembly of People's Representatives - last held 20 February and 12 March 2000 (next to be held NA February 2005); Legislative Assembly - last held 20 February and 12 March 2000 (next to be held NA February 2005)
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court (judges are appointed for 10-year terms by Supreme Council on recommendation of president); Constitutional Court; Higher Court of Arbitration
Political parties and leaders:
Agrarian Labor Party of Kyrgyzstan [Uson S. SYDYKOV]; Agrarian Party of Kyrgyzstan [Arkin ALIYEV]; Ata-Meken or Fatherland [Omurbek TEKEBAYEV]; Banner National Revival Party or ASABA [Chaprashty BAZARBAY]; Democratic Movement of Kyrgyzstan or DDK [Jypar JEKSHEYEV]; Democratic Women's Party of Kyrgyzstan [T. A. SHAILIYEVA]; Dignity Party [Feliks KULOV]; Erkin Kyrgyzstan Progressive and Democratic Party [Tursunbay Bakir UULU]; Justice Party [Chingiz AYTMATOV]; Movement for People's Salvation [Jumgalbek AMAMBAYEV]; Mutual Help Movement or Ashar [Jumagazy USUPOV]; My Country Party of Action [Almazbek ISMANKULOV]; National Unity Democratic Movement or DDNE [Yury RAZGULYAYEV]; Party of Communists of Kyrgyzstan or KCP [Absamat M. MASALIYEV]; Party of Veterans of War in Afghanistan [leader NA]; Peasant Party [leader NA]; People's Party [Melis ESHIMKANOV]; Republican Popular Party of Kyrgyzstan [J. SHARSHENALIYEV]; Social Democratic Party or PSD [J. IBRAMOV]; Union of Democratic Forces (composed of Social Democratic Party of Kyrgyzstan or PSD [J. IBRAMOV], Economic Revival Party, and Birimdik Party)
Political pressure groups and leaders:
Council of Free Trade Unions; Kyrgyz Committee on Human Rights [Ramazan DYRYLDAYEV]; National Unity Democratic Movement; Union of Entrepreneurs
International organization participation:
Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Bakyt ABDRISAYEV
FAX: [1] (202) 338-5139
consulate(s): New York
telephone: [1] (202) 338-5141
chancery: 1732 Wisconsin Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20007
Diplomatic representation from US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Stephen M. YOUNG
embassy: 171 Prospect Mira, 720016 Bishkek
mailing address: use embassy street address
telephone: [996] (312) 551-241, (517) 777-217
FAX: [996] (312) 551-264
Flag description:
red field with a yellow sun in center having 40 rays representing 40 Kyrgyz tribes; on obverse side rays run counterclockwise, on reverse, clockwise; in center of sun is a red ring crossed by two sets of three lines, a stylized representation of roof of traditional Kyrgyz yurt
Economy Kyrgyzstan
Economy - overview:
Kyrgyzstan is a limited , poor, mountainous country with a predominantly agricultural economy. Cotton, tobacco, wool, and meat are main agricultural products, although only tobacco and cotton are exported in any quantity. Industrial exports include gold, mercury, uranium, and natural gas and electricity. Kyrgyzstan has been fairly progressive in carrying out market reforms, such as an improved regulatory system and land reform. Kyrgyzstan previously first CIS country to be accepted into World Trade Organization. With fits and starts, inflation has been lowered to an estimated 7% in 2001, 2.1% in 2002, and 4.0% in 2003. Much of government's stock in enterprises has been sold. Drops in production had been severe after breakup of Soviet Union in December 1991, but by mid-1995 production began to recover and exports began to increase. Growth previously held down to 2.1% in 1998 largely because of spillover from Russia's economic difficulties, but moved ahead to 3.6% in 1999, 5% in 2000, and 5% again in 2001. drop in output at Kumtor gold mine sparked a 0.5% decline in GDP in 2002 and again in 2003. On positive side, government and international financial institutions have been engaged in a comprehensive medium-term poverty reduction and economic growth strategy. Further restructuring of domestic industry and success in attracting foreign investment are keys to future growth.
buying power parity - $13.88 billion (2002 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:
5.3% (2002 est.)
GDP - per capita:
buying power parity - $2,900 (2002 est.)
GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 35%
industry: 25%
services: 40% (2002 est.)
Population below poverty line:
55% (2001 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: 3.2%
highest 10%: 27.7% (1999)
Distribution of family income - Gini index:
34.6 (1999)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
2.1% (2002 est.)
Labor force:
2.7 million (2000)
Labor force - by occupation:
agriculture 55%, industry 15%, services 30% (2000 est.)
Unemployment rate:
7.2% (1999 est.)
revenues: $207.4 million
expenditures: $238.7 million, includes capital expenditures of $NA (1999 est.)
limited machinery, textiles, food processing, cement, shoes, sawn logs, refrigerators, furniture, electric motors, gold, rare earth metals
Industrial production growth rate:
6% (2000 est.)
Electricity - production:
13.45 billion kWh (2001)
Electricity - production by source:
fossil fuel: 7.6%
hydro: 92.4%
other: 0% (2001)
nuclear: 0%
Electricity - consumption:
10.46 billion kWh (2001)
Electricity - exports:
2.25 billion kWh (2001)
Electricity - imports:
200 million kWh (2001)
Oil - production:
2,000 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Oil - consumption:
20,000 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Oil - exports:
NA (2001)
Oil - imports:
NA (2001)
Natural gas - production:
16 million cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - consumption:
2.016 billion cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - exports:
0 cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - imports:
2 billion cu m (2001 est.)
Agriculture - products:
tobacco, cotton, potatoes, vegetables, grapes, fruits and berries; sheep, goats, cattle, wool
$488 million f.o.b. (2002 est.)
Exports - commodities:
cotton, wool, meat, tobacco; gold, mercury, uranium, natural gas, hydropower; machinery; shoes
Exports - partners:
Switzerland 19.9%, Russia 16.5%, UAE 14.2%, China 8.5%, Kazakhstan 7.6%, US 7.4%, Uzbekistan 5.7% (2002)
$587 million f.o.b. (2002 est.)
Imports - commodities:
oil and gas, machinery and equipment, chemicals, foodstuffs
Imports - partners:
Kazakhstan 21.1%, Russia 19.9%, Uzbekistan 10.2%, China 10.1%, US 8.1%, Germany 5.3% (2002)
Debt - external:
$1.5 billion (2002 est.)
Economic aid - recipient:
$50 million from US (2001)
Kyrgyzstani som (KGS)
Currency code:
Exchange rates:
soms per US dollar - 46.94 (2002), 48.38 (2001), 47.7 (2000), 39.01 (1999), 20.84 (1998)
Fiscal year:
calendar year
Communications Kyrgyzstan
Telephones - main lines in use:
351,000 (1997)
Telephones - mobile cellular:
Telephone system:
general assessment: poorly developed; about 100,000 unsatisfied applications for household telephones
domestic: principally microwave radio relay; one cellular provider, probably limited to Bishkek region
international: connections with other CIS countries by landline or microwave radio relay and with other countries by leased connections with Moscow international gateway switch and by satellite; satellite earth stations - 1 Intersputnik and 1 Intelsat; connected internationally by Trans-Asia-Europe (TAE) fiber-optic line
Radio broadcast stations:
AM 12 (plus 10 repeater stations), FM 14, shortwave 2 (1998)
520,000 (1997)
Television broadcast stations:
NA (repeater stations throughout country relay programs from Russia, Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan, and Turkey) (1997)
210,000 (1997)
Internet country code:
Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
Internet users:
51,600 (2001)
Transportation Kyrgyzstan
total: 420 km
broad gauge: 420 km 1.520-m gauge (2002)
total: 18,500 km
paved: 16,854 km (including 140 km of expressways)
unpaved: 1,646 km (1999 est.)
600 km (1990)
gas 367 km; oil 13 km (2003)
Ports and harbors:
Balykchy (Ysyk-Kol or Rybach'ye)
68 (2002)
Airports - with paved runways:
total: 18
over 3,047 m: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
1,524 to 2,437 m: 11
914 to 1,523 m: 1
under 914 m: 3 (2002)
Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 50
2,438 to 3,047 m: 3
1,524 to 2,437 m: 5
914 to 1,523 m: 6
under 914 m: 36 (2002)
Military Kyrgyzstan
Military branches:
Army, Air and Air Defense, Security Forces, Border Troops
Military manpower - military age:
18 years of age (2003 est.)
Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 1,265,019 (2003 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service:
males age 15-49: 1,026,063 (2003 est.)
Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
males: 54,445 (2003 est.)
Military expenditures - dollar figure:
$19.2 million (FY01)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
1.4% (FY01)
Transnational Issues Kyrgyzstan
Disputes - international:
Kyrgyzstan's constitutional court has ruled that 1,270 sq km ceded to China in a 2000 delimitation agreement were legally transferred; delimitation with Kazakhstan is largely complete with only minor disputed areas; disputes in Isfara Valley delay completion of delimitation with Tajikistan; serious disputes with Uzbekistan around Uzbek enclaves mar progress on delimitation efforts
Illicit drugs:
limited illicit cultivation of cannabis and opium poppy for CIS markets; limited government eradication of illicit crops; transit point for Southwest Asian narcotics bound for Russia and rest of Europe