Home > Appendix
Get A Large Static Flag Kenya
Flag of Kenya
Map of Kenya
Introduction Kenya
Founding president and liberation struggle icon Jomo KENYATTA led Kenya from independence until his death in 1978, when President Daniel Toroitich arap MOI took power in a constitutional succession. country previously a de facto one-party state from 1969 until 1982 when ruling Kenya African National Union (KANU) made itself sole legal party in Kenya. MOI acceded to internal and external pressure for political liberalization in late 1991. ethnically fractured opposition failed to dislodge KANU from power in elections in 1992 and 1997, which were marred by violence and fraud, but are viewed as having generally reflected will of Kenyan people. President MOI stepped down in December of 2002 following fair and peaceful elections. Mwai KIBAKI, running as candidate of multiethnic, united opposition group, National Rainbow Coalition, defeated KANU candidate Uhuru KENYATTA and assumed presidency following a campaign centered on an anticorruption platform.
Geography Kenya
Eastern Africa, bordering Indian Ocean, between Somalia and Tanzania
Geographic coordinates:
1 00 N, 38 00 E
Map references:
total: 582,650 sq km
water: 13,400 sq km
land: 569,250 sq km
Area - comparative:
slightly more than twice size of Nevada
Land boundaries:
total: 3,477 km
border countries: Ethiopia 861 km, Somalia 682 km, Sudan 232 km, Tanzania 769 km, Uganda 933 km
536 km
Maritime claims:
continental shelf: 200-m depth or to depth of exploitation
exclusive economic zone: 200 NM
territorial sea: 12 NM
varies from tropical along coast to arid in interior
low plains rise to central highlands bisected by Great Rift Valley; fertile plateau in west
Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m
highest point: Mount Kenya 5,199 m
Natural resources:
gold, limestone, soda ash, salt, rubies, fluorspar, garnets, wildlife, hydropower
Land use:
arable land: 7.03%
permanent crops: 0.91%
other: 92.06% (1998 est.)
Irrigated land:
670 sq km (1998 est.)
Natural hazards:
recurring drought; flooding during rainy seasons
Environment - current issues:
water pollution from urban and industrial wastes; degradation of water quality from increased use of pesticides and fertilizers; water hyacinth infestation in Lake Victoria; deforestation; soil erosion; desertification; poaching
Environment - international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of selected agreements
Geography - note:
Kenyan Highlands comprise one of most successful agricultural production regions in Africa; glaciers are found on Mount Kenya, Africa's second highest peak; unique physiography supports abundant and varied wildlife of scientific and economic value
People Kenya
Total Population:
note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality and death rates, lower population and growth rates, and changes in distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2003 est.)
Age structure:
0-14 years: 41.3% (male 6,609,904; female 6,461,945)
15-64 years: 55.8% (male 8,900,615; female 8,766,698)
65 years and over: 2.9% (male 389,918; female 510,011) (2003 est.)
Median age:
total: 18.4 years
female: 18.5 years (2002)
male: 18.2 years
Population growth rate:
1.27% (2003 est.)
Birth rate:
28.81 births/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Death rate:
16.01 deaths/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Net migration rate:
-0.15 migrant(s)/1,000 population
note: according to UNHCR, by end of 2001 Kenya previously host to 220,000 refugees from neighboring countries, includes : Somalia 145,000 and Sudan 68,000 (2003 est.)
Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.76 male(s)/female
Population: 1.01 male(s)/female (2003 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
total: 63.36 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 60.25 deaths/1,000 live births (2003 est.)
male: 66.37 deaths/1,000 live births
Life Expectancy:
Population: 45.22 years
male: 45.02 years
female: 45.43 years (2003 est.)
Total fertility rate:
3.47 children born/woman (2003 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
15% (2001 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
2.5 million (2001 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
190,000 (2001 est.)
noun: Kenyan(s)
adjective: Kenyan
Ethnic groups:
Kikuyu 22%, Luhya 14%, Luo 13%, Kalenjin 12%, Kamba 11%, Kisii 6%, Meru 6%, other African 15%, non-African (Asian, European, and Arab) 1%
Protestant 45%, Roman Catholic 33%, indigenous beliefs 10%, Muslim 10%, other 2%
note: a large majority of Kenyans are Christian, but estimates for percentage of population that adheres to Islam or indigenous beliefs vary widely
English (official), Kiswahili (official), numerous indigenous languages
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
Population: 85.1%
male: 90.6%
female: 79.7% (2003 est.)
Government Kenya
Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of Kenya
conventional short form: Kenya
former: British East Africa
Government type:
Administrative divisions:
7 provinces and 1 area*; Central, Coast, Eastern, Nairobi Area*, North Eastern, Nyanza, Rift Valley, Western
12 December 1963 (from UK)
National holiday:
Independence Day, 12 December (1963)
12 December 1963, amended as a republic 1964; reissued with amendments 1979, 1983, 1986, 1988, 1991, 1992, 1997, and 2001
Legal system:
based on Kenyan statutory law, Kenyan and English common law, tribal law, and Islamic law; judicial review in High Court; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations; constitutional amendment of 1982 making Kenya a de jure one-party state repealed in 1991
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
chief of state: President Mwai KIBAKI (since 30 December 2002) and Vice President Moody AWORI (since 25 September 2003); note - president is both chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Mwai KIBAKI (since 30 December 2002) and Vice President Moody AWORI (since 25 September 2003); note - president is both chief of state and head of government
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by president
elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term; in addition to receiving largest number of votes in absolute terms, presidential candidate must also win 25% or more of vote in at least five of Kenya's seven provinces and one area to avoid a runoff; election last held 27 December 2002 (next to be held NA December 2007); vice president appointed by president
election results: President Mwai KIBAKI elected; percent of vote - Mwai KIBAKI 63%, Uhuru KENYATTA 30%
Legislative branch:
unicameral National Assembly or Bunge (224 seats; 210 members elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms, 12 so-called "nominated" members who are appointed by president but selected by parties in proportion to their parliamentary vote totals, 2 ex-officio members)
elections: last held 27 December 2002 (next to be held by early 2007)
election results: percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - NARC 125, KANU 64, FORD-P 14, other 7; ex-officio 2; seats appointed by president - NARC 7, KANU 4, FORD-P 1
Judicial branch:
Court of Appeal (chief justice is appointed by president); High Court
Political parties and leaders:
Forum for Restoration of Democracy-People or FORD-People [Kimaniwa NYOIKE, chairman]; Kenya African National Union or KANU [Uhuru KENYATTA]; National Rainbow Coalition or NARC [Mwai KIBAKI] - governing party
Political pressure groups and leaders:
human rights groups; labor unions; Muslim organizations; National Convention Executive Council or NCEC, a proreform coalition of political parties and nongovernment organizations [Kivutha KIBWANA]; Protestant National Council of Churches of Kenya or NCCK [Mutava MUSYIMI]; Roman Catholic and other Christian churches; Supreme Council of Kenya Muslims or SUPKEM [Shaykh Abdul Gafur al-BUSAIDY]
International organization participation:
Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Yusuf Abdulraham NZIBO
consulate(s) general: offices in Los Angeles and New York are closed; mission to UN remains open
FAX: [1] (202) 462-3829
telephone: [1] (202) 387-6101
chancery: 2249 R Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
Diplomatic representation from US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Johnnie CARSON
embassy: US Embassy, United Nations Ave., Gigiti; P. O. Box 606 Village Market Nairobi
mailing address: Box 21A, Unit 64100, APO AE 09831
telephone: [254] (2) 537-800
FAX: [254] (2) 537-810
Flag description:
three equal horizontal bands of black (top), red, and green; red band is edged in white; a large warrior's shield covering crossed spears is superimposed at center
Economy Kenya
Economy - overview:
Kenya, regional hub for trade and finance in East Africa, is hampered by corruption and reliance upon several primary goods whose prices remain low. Following strong economic growth in 1995 and 1996, Kenya's economy has stagnated, with GDP growth failing to keep up with rate of population growth. In 1997, IMF suspended Kenya's Enhanced Structural Adjustment Program due to government's failure to maintain reforms and curb corruption. A severe drought from 1999 to 2000 compounded Kenya's problems, causing water and energy rationing and reducing agricultural output. As a result, GDP contracted by 0.3% in 2000. IMF, which had resumed loans in 2000 to help Kenya through drought, again halted lending in 2001 when government failed to institute several anticorruption measures. Despite return of strong rains in 2001, weak commodity prices, endemic corruption, and low investment limited Kenya's economic growth to 1%. Growth fell below 1% in 2002 because of erratic rains, low investor confidence, meager donor support, and political infighting up to elections. In key December 27, 2002 elections, Daniel Arap MOI's 24-year-old reign ended, and a new opposition government took on formidable economic problems facing nation. Substantial donor support and rooting out corruption are essential to making Kenya realize its substantial economic potential.
buying power parity - $32.89 billion (2002 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:
1.1% (2002 est.)
GDP - per capita:
buying power parity - $1,100 (2002 est.)
GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 24%
industry: 13%
services: 63% (2001 est.)
Population below poverty line:
50% (2000 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: 2%
highest 10%: 37.2% (2000)
Distribution of family income - Gini index:
44.9 (1997)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
1.9% (2002 est.)
Labor force:
10 million (2001 est.)
Labor force - by occupation:
agriculture 75% 75%-80%
Unemployment rate:
40% (2001 est.)
revenues: $2.91 billion
expenditures: $2.97 billion, includes capital expenditures of $NA (2000 est.)
limited -scale consumer goods (plastic, furniture, batteries, textiles, soap, cigarettes, flour), agricultural products processing; oil refining, cement; tourism
Industrial production growth rate:
0.9% (2002 est.)
Electricity - production:
4.033 billion kWh (2001)
Electricity - production by source:
fossil fuel: 71%
hydro: 17.7%
other: 11.3% (2001)
nuclear: 0%
Electricity - consumption:
3.981 billion kWh (2001)
Electricity - exports:
0 kWh (2001)
Electricity - imports:
230 million kWh (2001)
Oil - production:
0 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Oil - consumption:
57,000 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Oil - exports:
NA (2001)
Oil - imports:
NA (2001)
Agriculture - products:
tea, coffee, corn, wheat, sugarcane, fruit, vegetables; dairy products, beef, pork, poultry, eggs
$2.1 billion f.o.b. (2002 est.)
Exports - commodities:
tea, horticultural products, coffee, petroleum products, fish, cement
Exports - partners:
Uganda 18.3%, UK 12.9%, US 8%, Netherlands 7.6%, Pakistan 4.9%, Tanzania 4.4%, Egypt 4.1% (2002)
$3 billion f.o.b. (2002 est.)
Imports - commodities:
machinery and transportation equipment, petroleum products, motor vehicles, iron and steel, resins and plastics
Imports - partners:
UAE 12%, Saudi Arabia 8.7%, US 8.1%, UK 7.1%, South Africa 7.1%, France 5.8%, China 5.5%, Japan 5%, India 4.8% (2002)
Debt - external:
$5.7 billion (2002 est.)
Economic aid - recipient:
$457 million (1997)
Kenyan shilling (KES)
Currency code:
Exchange rates:
Kenyan shillings per US dollar - 78.75 (2002), 78.56 (2001), 76.18 (2000), 70.33 (1999), 60.37 (1998)
Fiscal year:
1 July - 30 June
Communications Kenya
Telephones - main lines in use:
310,000 (2001)
Telephones - mobile cellular:
540,000 (2001)
Telephone system:
general assessment: unreliable; little attempt to modernize except for service to business
domestic: trunks are primarily microwave radio relay; business data commonly transferred by a very limited aperture terminal (VSAT) system
international: satellite earth stations - 4 Intelsat
Radio broadcast stations:
AM 24, FM 18, shortwave 6 (2001)
3.07 million (1997)
Television broadcast stations:
8 (2002)
730,000 (1997)
Internet country code:
Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
65 (2001)
Internet users:
500,000 (2002)
Transportation Kenya
total: 2,778 km
narrow gauge: 2,778 km 1.000-m gauge (2002)
total: 63,942 km
paved: 7,737 km
unpaved: 56,205 km (2000)
note: part of Lake Victoria system is within boundaries of Kenya
refined products 752 km (2003)
Ports and harbors:
Kisumu, Lamu, Mombasa
Merchant marine:
total: 2 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 4,893 GRT/6,320 DWT
ships by type: petroleum tanker 1, roll on/roll off 1 (2002 est.)
230 (2002)
Airports - with paved runways:
total: 19
over 3,047 m: 4
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 3
914 to 1,523 m: 10
under 914 m: 1 (2002)
Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 211
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 14
914 to 1,523 m: 113
under 914 m: 83 (2002)
Military Kenya
Military branches:
Army, Navy, Air Force
Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 8,096,142 (2003 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service:
males age 15-49: 5,017,501 (2003 est.)
Military expenditures - dollar figure:
$185.2 million (FY02)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
1.8% (FY02)
Transnational Issues Kenya
Disputes - international:
Kenya's administrative boundary still extends into Sudan, creating "Ilemi triangle"
Illicit drugs:
widespread harvesting of limited plots of marijuana; transit country for South Asian heroin destined for Europe and North America; Indian methaqualone also transits on way to South Africa; significant potential for money-laundering activity given countries status as a regional financial center, massive corruption, and relatively high levels of narcotics-associated activities