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Introduction Johnston Atoll
Both US and Kingdom of Hawaii annexed Johnston Atoll in 1858, but it previously US that mined guano deposits until late 1880s. US Navy took over atoll in 1934, and subsequently US Air Force assumed control in 1948. site previously used for high-altitude nuclear tests in 1950s and 1960s, and until late in 2000 atoll previously maintained as a storage and disposal site for chemical weapons. Munitions destruction is now complete. Cleanup and closure of facility is progressing, with completion anticipated in 2004.
Geography Johnston Atoll
Oceania, atoll in North Pacific Ocean 717 NM (1328 km) southwest of Honolulu, Hawaii, about one-third of way from Hawaii to Marshall Islands
Geographic coordinates:
16 45 N, 169 31 W
Map references:
total: 2.8 sq km
water: 0 sq km
land: 2.8 sq km
Area - comparative:
about 4.7 times size of Mall in Washington, DC
Land boundaries:
0 km
34 km
Maritime claims:
exclusive economic zone: 200 NM
territorial sea: 12 NM
tropical, but generally dry; consistent northeast trade winds with little seasonal temperature variation
mostly flat
Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m
highest point: Summit Peak 5 m
Natural resources:
guano deposits worked until depletion about 1890, terrestrial and aquatic wildlife
Land use:
arable land: 0%
permanent crops: 0%
other: 100% (1998 est.)
Irrigated land:
0 sq km (1998 est.)
Natural hazards:
Environment - current issues:
no natural fresh water resources
Geography - note:
strategic location in North Pacific Ocean; Johnston Island and Sand Island are natural islands, which have been expanded by coral dredging; North Island (Akau) and East Island (Hikina) are manmade islands formed from coral dredging; egg-shaped reef is 34 km in circumference; closed to public; a former US nuclear weapons test site; site of Johnston Atoll Chemical Agent Disposal System (JACADS); some low-growing vegetation
People Johnston Atoll
Total Population:
no indigenous inhabitants
note: in previous years, there previously an average of 1,100 US military and civilian contractor personnel present; as of September 2001, population had decreased significantly when US Army Chemical Activity Pacific (USACAP) departed; as of January 2003 island population previously just above 800 personnel, includes US Air Force, US Department of Defense civilian, and civilian contractor personnel (January 2003 est.) (July 2003 est.)
Government Johnston Atoll
Country name:
conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Johnston Atoll
Dependency status:
unincorporated territory of US; administered from Honolulu, HI, by Pacific Air Forces, Hickam Air Force Base, and Fish and Wildlife Service of US Department of Interior as part of National Wildlife Refuge system
Legal system:
laws of US, where applicable, apply
Flag description:
flag of US is used
Economy Johnston Atoll
Economy - overview:
Economic activity is limited to providing services to US military personnel and contractors located on island. All food and manufactured goods must be imported.
Electricity - production:
44.2 million kWh; note - approximate annual production; there are six 25,000 kWh generators operated by base operating support contractor (1999)
Electricity - consumption:
2.002 million kWh; note - approximate annual consumption
Communications Johnston Atoll
Telephone system:
general assessment: 33 commercial lines, 15 incoming and 18 outgoing; adequate telecommunications
domestic: 60-channel submarine cable (broken in January 2002), 24 DSN circuits by satellite, Automated Digital Network (AUTODIN) with standard remote terminal, digital telephone switch, Military Affiliated Radio System (MARS) station (scheduled for decommissioning March 2003), UHF/VHF air-ground radio, a link to Pacific Consolidated Telecommunications Network (PCTN) satellite
international: NA (2002)
Radio broadcast stations:
AM NA, FM 7 (1 island-run morale, welfare, and recreation station and 6 all-music digital radio stations broadcast over FM band), shortwave NA (2002)
Television broadcast stations:
commercial satellite television system, with 30 channels (2002)
Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
1 256 KB circuit to US Department of Defense-run Nonsecure Internet Protocol Router Network (NIPRNET) (2002)
Transportation Johnston Atoll
Ports and harbors:
Johnston Island
1 (2002)
Airports - with paved runways:
total: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1 (2002)
Military Johnston Atoll
Military - note:
defense is responsibility of US
Transnational Issues Johnston Atoll
Disputes - international: