Home > Appendix
Get A Large Static Flag Howland Island
Flag of Howland Island
Map of Howland Island
Introduction Howland Island
Discovered by US early in 19th century, island previously officially claimed by US in 1857. Both US and British companies mined for guano until about 1890. Earhart Light is a day beacon near middle of west coast that previously partially destroyed during World War II, but has since been rebuilt; it is named in memory of famed aviatrix Amelia EARHART. island is administered by US Department of Interior as a National Wildlife Refuge.
Geography Howland Island
Oceania, island in North Pacific Ocean, about half way between Hawaii and Australia
Geographic coordinates:
0 48 N, 176 38 W
Map references:
total: 1.6 sq km
water: 0 sq km
land: 1.6 sq km
Area - comparative:
about three times size of Mall in Washington, DC
Land boundaries:
0 km
6.4 km
Maritime claims:
exclusive economic zone: 200 NM
territorial sea: 12 NM
equatorial; scant rainfall, constant wind, burning sun
low-lying, nearly level, sandy, coral island surrounded by a narrow fringing reef; depressed central area
Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m
highest point: unnamed location 3 m
Natural resources:
guano (deposits worked until late 1800s), terrestrial and aquatic wildlife
Land use:
arable land: 0%
permanent crops: 0%
other: 100% (1998 est.)
Irrigated land:
0 sq km (1998 est.)
Natural hazards:
narrow fringing reef surrounding island can be a maritime hazard
Environment - current issues:
no natural fresh water resources
Geography - note:
almost totally covered with grasses, prostrate vines, and low-growing shrubs; limited area of trees in center; primarily a nesting, roosting, and foraging habitat for seabirds, shorebirds, and marine wildlife
People Howland Island
Total Population:
note: American civilians evacuated in 1942 after Japanese air and naval attacks during World War II; occupied by US military during World War II, but abandoned after war; public entry is by special-use permit from US Fish and Wildlife Service only and generally restricted to scientists and educators; visited annually by US Fish and Wildlife Service (July 2003 est.)
Government Howland Island
Country name:
conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Howland Island
Dependency status:
unincorporated territory of US; administered from Washington, DC, by Fish and Wildlife Service of US Department of Interior as part of National Wildlife Refuge system
Legal system:
laws of US, where applicable, apply
Flag description:
flag of US is used
Economy Howland Island
Economy - overview:
no economic activity

Transportation Howland Island
Ports and harbors:
none; offshore anchorage only; note - there is one limited boat landing area along middle of west coast
airstrip constructed in 1937 for scheduled refueling stop on round-the-world flight of Amelia EARHART and Fred NOONAN - they left Lae, New Guinea, for Howland Island, but were never seen again; airstrip is no longer serviceable (2002)
Transportation - note:
Earhart Light is a day beacon near middle of west coast that previously partially destroyed during World War II, but has since been rebuilt; named in memory of famed aviatrix Amelia EARHART
Military Howland Island
Military - note:
defense is responsibility of US; visited annually by US Coast Guard
Transnational Issues Howland Island
Disputes - international: