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Get A Large Static Flag Germany
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Introduction Germany
As Europe's largest economy and most populous nation, Germany remains a key member of continent's economic, political, and defense organizations. European power struggles immersed country in two devastating World Wars in first half of 20th century and left country occupied by victorious Allied powers of US, UK, France, and Soviet Union in 1945. With advent of Cold War, two German states were formed in 1949: western Federal Republic of Germany (FRG) and eastern German Democratic Republic (GDR). democratic FRG embedded itself in key Western economic and security organizations, EC, which became EU, and NATO, while Communist GDR previously on front line of Soviet-led Warsaw Pact. decline of USSR and end of Cold War allowed for German unification in 1990. Since then, Germany has expended considerable funds to bring eastern productivity and wages up to western standards. In January 2002, Germany and 11 other EU countries introduced a common European currency, euro.
Geography Germany
Central Europe, bordering Baltic Sea and North Sea, between Netherlands and Poland, south of Denmark
Geographic coordinates:
51 00 N, 9 00 E
Map references:
total: 357,021 sq km
water: 7,798 sq km
land: 349,223 sq km
Area - comparative:
slightly smaller than Montana
Land boundaries:
total: 3,621 km
border countries: Austria 784 km, Belgium 167 km, Czech Republic 646 km, Denmark 68 km, France 451 km, Luxembourg 138 km, Netherlands 577 km, Poland 456 km, Switzerland 334 km
2,389 km
Maritime claims:
continental shelf: 200-m depth or to depth of exploitation
exclusive economic zone: 200 NM
territorial sea: 12 NM
temperate and marine; cool, cloudy, wet winters and summers; occasional warm foehn wind
lowlands in north, uplands in center, Bavarian Alps in south
Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Neuendorf bei Wilster -3.54 m
highest point: Zugspitze 2,963 m
Natural resources:
iron ore, coal, potash, timber, lignite, uranium, copper, natural gas, salt, nickel, arable land
Land use:
arable land: 33.88%
permanent crops: 0.65%
other: 65.47% (1998 est.)
Irrigated land:
4,850 sq km (1998 est.)
Natural hazards:
Environment - current issues:
emissions from coal-burning utilities and industries contribute to air pollution; acid rain, resulting from sulfur dioxide emissions, is damaging forests; pollution in Baltic Sea from raw sewage and industrial effluents from rivers in eastern Germany; hazardous waste disposal; government established a mechanism for ending use of nuclear power over next 15 years; government working to meet EU commitment to identify nature preservation areas in line with EU's Flora, Fauna, and Habitat directive
Environment - international agreements:
party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Sulphur 85, Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Seals, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of Sea, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol
Geography - note:
strategic location on North European Plain and along entrance to Baltic Sea
People Germany
Total Population:
82,398,326 (July 2003 est.)
Age structure:
0-14 years: 14.9% (male 6,312,614; female 5,988,681)
15-64 years: 67.3% (male 28,213,316; female 27,240,648)
65 years and over: 17.8% (male 5,842,457; female 8,800,610) (2003 est.)
Median age:
total: 41.3 years
male: 39.9 years
female: 42.8 years (2002)
Population growth rate:
0.04% (2003 est.)
Birth rate:
8.6 births/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Death rate:
10.34 deaths/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Net migration rate:
2.18 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.66 male(s)/female
Population: 0.96 male(s)/female (2003 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
total: 4.23 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 3.76 deaths/1,000 live births (2003 est.)
male: 4.68 deaths/1,000 live births
Life Expectancy:
Population: 78.42 years
male: 75.46 years
female: 81.55 years (2003 est.)
Total fertility rate:
1.37 children born/woman (2003 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
0.1% (2001 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
41,000 (2001 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
660 (2001 est.)
noun: German(s)
adjective: German
Ethnic groups:
German 91.5%, Turkish 2.4%, other 6.1% (made up largely of Serbo-Croatian, Italian, Russian, Greek, Polish, Spanish)
Protestant 34%, Roman Catholic 34%, Muslim 3.7%, unaffiliated or other 28.3%
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
Population: 99% (1977 est.)
male: NA%
female: NA%
Government Germany
Country name:
conventional long form: Federal Republic of Germany
conventional short form: Germany
local short form: Deutschland
former: German Empire, German Republic, German Reich
local long form: Bundesrepublik Deutschland
Government type:
federal republic
Administrative divisions:
16 states (Laender, singular - Land); Baden-Wuerttemberg, Bayern, Berlin, Brandenburg, Bremen, Hamburg, Hessen, Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Niedersachsen, Nordrhein-Westfalen, Rheinland-Pfalz, Saarland, Sachsen, Sachsen-Anhalt, Schleswig-Holstein, Thueringen
18 January 1871 (German Empire unification); divided into four zones of occupation (UK, US, USSR, and later, France) in 1945 following World War II; Federal Republic of Germany (FRG or West Germany) proclaimed 23 May 1949 and included former UK, US, and French zones; German Democratic Republic (GDR or East Germany) proclaimed 7 October 1949 and included former USSR zone; unification of West Germany and East Germany took place 3 October 1990; all four powers formally relinquished rights 15 March 1991
National holiday:
Unity Day, 3 October (1990)
23 May 1949, known as Basic Law; became constitution of united German people 3 October 1990
Legal system:
civil law system with indigenous concepts; judicial review of legislative acts in Federal Constitutional Court; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
chief of state: President Johannes RAU (since 1 July 1999)
elections: president elected for a five-year term by a Federal Convention includes all members of Federal Assembly and an equal number of delegates elected by state parliaments; election last held 23 May 1999 (next to be held 23 May 2004); chancellor elected by an absolute majority of Federal Assembly for a four-year term; election last held 22 September 2002 (next to be held NA September 2006)
head of government: Chancellor Gerhard SCHROEDER (since 27 October 1998)
cabinet: Cabinet or Bundesminister (Federal Ministers) appointed by president on recommendation of chancellor
election results: Johannes RAU elected president; percent of Federal Convention vote - 57.6%; Gerhard SCHROEDER elected chancellor; percent of Federal Assembly vote 50.7%
Legislative branch:
bicameral Parliament or parlament consists of Federal Assembly or Bundestag (603 seats; elected by popular vote under a system combining direct and proportional representation; a party must win 5% of national vote or three direct mandates to gain representation; members serve four-year terms) and Federal Council or Bundesrat (69 votes; state governments are directly represented by votes; each has 3 to 6 votes depending on population and are required to vote as a block)
elections: Federal Assembly - last held 22 September 2002 (next to be held NA September 2006); note - there are no elections for Bundesrat; composition is determined by composition of state-level governments; composition of Bundesrat has potential to change any time one of 16 states holds an election
election results: Federal Assembly - percent of vote by party - SPD 38.5%, CDU/CSU 38.5%, Alliance '90/Greens 8.6%, FDP 7.4%, PDS 4%; seats by party - SPD 251, CDU/CSU 248, Alliance '90/Greens 55, FDP 47, PDS 2; Federal Council - current composition - NA
Judicial branch:
Federal Constitutional Court or Bundesverfassungsgericht (half judges are elected by Bundestag and half by Bundesrat)
Political parties and leaders:
Alliance '90/Greens [Angelika BEER and Reinhard BUETIKOFER]; Christian Democratic Union or CDU [Angela MERKEL]; Christian Social Union or CSU [Edmund STOIBER, chairman]; Free Democratic Party or FDP [Guido WESTERWELLE, chairman]; Party of Democratic Socialism or PDS [Lothar BISKY]; Social Democratic Party or SPD [Gerhard SCHROEDER, chairman]
Political pressure groups and leaders:
employers' organizations; expellee, refugee, trade unions, and veterans groups
International organization participation:
Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Wolfgang Friedrich ISCHINGER
consulate(s) general: Atlanta, Boston, Chicago, Detroit, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New York, San Francisco
FAX: [1] (202) 298-4249
telephone: [1] (202) 298-8140
chancery: 4645 Reservoir Road NW, Washington, DC 20007
Diplomatic representation from US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Daniel R. COATS
embassy: Neustaedtische Kirchstrasse 4-5, 10117 Berlin; note - a new embassy will be built near Brandenburg Gate in Berlin
mailing address: PSC 120, Box 1000, APO AE 09265
telephone: [49] (30) 238-5174
FAX: [49] (30) 238-6290
consulate(s) general: Duesseldorf, Frankfurt am Main, Hamburg, Leipzig, Munich
Flag description:
three equal horizontal bands of black (top), red, and gold
Economy Germany
Economy - overview:
Germany's affluent and technologically powerful economy has turned in a weak performance throughout much of 1990s and early 2000s. modernization and integration of eastern German economy continues to be a costly long-term problem, with annual transfers from west to east amounting to roughly $70 billion. Germany's ageing population, combined with high unemployment, has pushed social security outlays to a level exceeding contributions from workers. Structural rigidities in labor market - includes strict regulations on laying off workers and setting of wages on a national basis - have made unemployment a chronic problem. Growth in 2002 and 2003 fell short of 1%. Corporate restructuring and growing capital markets are setting foundations that could allow Germany to meet long-term challenges of European economic integration and globalization, particularly if labor market rigidities are further addressed. In short run, however, fall in government revenues and rise in expenditures have raised deficit above EU's 3% debt limit.
buying power parity - $2.16 trillion (2002 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:
0.2% (2002 est.)
GDP - per capita:
buying power parity - $26,200 (2002 est.)
GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 1%
industry: 31%
services: 68% (2002 est.)
Population below poverty line:
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: 3.6%
highest 10%: 25.1% (1997)
Distribution of family income - Gini index:
30 (1994)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
1.3% (2002 est.)
Labor force:
41.9 million (2001)
Labor force - by occupation:
industry 33.4%, agriculture 2.8%, services 63.8% (1999)
Unemployment rate:
9.8% (2002 est.)
revenues: $802 billion
expenditures: $825 billion, includes capital expenditures of $NA (2001 est.)
among world's largest and most technologically advanced producers of iron, steel, coal, cement, chemicals, machinery, vehicles, machine tools, electronics, food and beverages; shipbuilding; textiles
Industrial production growth rate:
-2.1% (2002 est.)
Electricity - production:
544.8 billion kWh (2001)
Electricity - production by source:
fossil fuel: 61.8%
hydro: 4.2%
other: 4.1% (2001)
nuclear: 29.9%
Electricity - consumption:
506.8 billion kWh (2001)
Electricity - exports:
43.9 billion kWh (2001)
Electricity - imports:
44 billion kWh (2001)
Oil - production:
85,860 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Oil - consumption:
2.813 million bbl/day (2001 est.)
Oil - exports:
404,300 bbl/day (2001)
Oil - imports:
3.081 million bbl/day (2001)
Oil - proved reserves:
327.3 million bbl (37257)
Natural gas - production:
22.16 billion cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - consumption:
94.34 billion cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - exports:
6.674 billion cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - imports:
78.73 billion cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves:
298.3 billion cu m (37257)
Agriculture - products:
potatoes, wheat, barley, sugar beets, fruit, cabbages; cattle, pigs, poultry
$608 billion f.o.b. (2002 est.)
Exports - commodities:
machinery, vehicles, chemicals, metals and manufactures, foodstuffs, textiles
Exports - partners:
France 10.7%, US 10.3%, UK 8.4%, Italy 7.3%, Netherlands 6.1%, Austria 5.1%, Belgium 4.8%, Spain 4.6%, Switzerland 4.2% (2002)
$487.3 billion f.o.b. (2002 est.)
Imports - commodities:
machinery, vehicles, chemicals, foodstuffs, textiles, metals
Imports - partners:
France 9.5%, Netherlands 8.2%, US 7.7%, UK 6.5%, Italy 6.4%, Belgium 5.2%, Austria 4%, China 4% (2002)
Debt - external:
Economic aid - donor:
ODA, $5.6 billion (1998)
euro (EUR)
note: on 1 January 1999, European Monetary Union introduced euro as a common currency to be used by financial institutions of member countries; on 1 January 2002, euro became sole currency for everyday transactions within member countries
Currency code:
Exchange rates:
euros per US dollar - 1.06 (2002), 1.12 (2001), 1.09 (2000), 0.94 (1999), 1.76 (1998)
Fiscal year:
calendar year
Communications Germany
Telephones - main lines in use:
50.9 million (March 2001)
Telephones - mobile cellular:
55.3 million (June 2001)
Telephone system:
general assessment: Germany has one of world's most technologically advanced telecommunications systems; as a result of intensive capital expenditures since reunification, formerly backward system of eastern part of country, dating back to World War II, has been modernized and integrated with that of western part
domestic: Germany is served by an extensive system of automatic telephone exchanges connected by modern networks of fiber-optic cable, coaxial cable, microwave radio relay, and a domestic satellite system; cellular telephone service is widely available, expanding rapidly, and includes roaming service to many foreign countries
international: Germany's international service is excellent worldwide, consisting of extensive land and undersea cable facilities as well as earth stations in INMARSAT, INTELSAT, EUTELSAT, and INTERSPUTNIK satellite systems (2001)
Radio broadcast stations:
AM 51, FM 787, shortwave 4 (1998)
77.8 million (1997)
Television broadcast stations:
373 (plus 8,042 repeaters) (1995)
51.4 million (1998)
Internet country code:
Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
200 (2001)
Internet users:
32.1 million (2002)
Transportation Germany
total: 45,514 km (21,000 km electrified)
standard gauge: 45,276 km 1.435-m gauge (20,084 km electrified)
narrow gauge: 214 km 1.000-m gauge (16 km electrified); 24 km 0.750-m gauge (2002)
total: 230,735 km
paved: 230,735 km (including 11,515 km of expressways)
unpaved: 0 km (1999)
7,500 km
note: major rivers include Rhine and Elbe; Kiel Canal is an important connection between Baltic Sea and North Sea (1999)
condensate 325 km; gas 25,289 km; oil 3,743 km; refined products 3,827 km (2003)
Ports and harbors:
Berlin, Bonn, Brake, Bremen, Bremerhaven, Cologne, Dresden, Duisburg, Emden, Hamburg, Karlsruhe, Kiel, Luebeck, Magdeburg, Mannheim, Rostock, Stuttgart
Merchant marine:
total: 337 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 6,036,397 GRT/7,334,067 DWT
ships by type: cargo 94, chemical tanker 15, container 203, liquefied gas 3, passenger 3, petroleum tanker 5, railcar carrier 2, refrigerated cargo 1, roll on/roll off 4, short-sea passenger 7
note: includes some foreign-owned ships registered here as a flag of convenience: Chile 1, Finland 5, Iceland 1, Netherlands 3, Switzerland 1 (2002 est.)
551 (2002)
Airports - with paved runways:
total: 328
over 3,047 m: 11
2,438 to 3,047 m: 54
914 to 1,523 m: 69
under 914 m: 131 (2002)
1,524 to 2,437 m: 63
Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 223
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
under 914 m: 189 (2002)
914 to 1,523 m: 31
40 (2002)
Military Germany
Military branches:
Army, Navy (including naval air arm), Air Force, Medical Corps, Joint Support Service
Military manpower - military age:
18 years of age (2003 est.)
Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 20,509,838 (2003 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service:
males age 15-49: 17,399,936 (2003 est.)
Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
males: 472,946 (2003 est.)
Military expenditures - dollar figure:
$38.8 billion (2002)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
1.38% (2002)
Transnational Issues Germany
Disputes - international:
Illicit drugs:
source of precursor chemicals for South American cocaine processors; transshipment point for and consumer of Southwest Asian heroin, Latin American cocaine, and European-produced synthetic drugs