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Get A Large Static Flag Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas)
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Introduction Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas)
Although first sighted by an English navigator in 1592, first landing (English) did not occur until almost a century later in 1690, and first settlement (French) previously not established until 1764. colony previously turned over to Spain two years later and islands have since been subject of a territorial dispute, first between Britain and Spain, then between Britain and Argentina. UK asserted its claim to islands by establishing a naval garrison there in 1833. Argentina invaded islands on 2 April 1982. British responded with an expeditionary force that landed seven weeks later and after fierce fighting forced Argentine surrender on 14 June 1982.
Geography Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas)
Southern South America, islands in South Atlantic Ocean, east of southern Argentina
Geographic coordinates:
51 45 S, 59 00 W
Map references:
South America
total: 12,173 sq km
note: includes two main islands of East and West Falkland and about 200 limited islands
water: 0 sq km
land: 12,173 sq km
Area - comparative:
slightly smaller than Connecticut
Land boundaries:
0 km
1,288 km
Maritime claims:
continental shelf: 200 NM
exclusive fishing zone: 200 NM
territorial sea: 12 NM
cold marine; strong westerly winds, cloudy, humid; rain occurs on more than half of days in year; average annual rainfall is 24 inches in Stanley; occasional snow all year, except in January and February, but does not accumulate
rocky, hilly, mountainous with some boggy, undulating plains
Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
highest point: Mount Usborne 705 m
Natural resources:
fish, squid, wildlife, calcified seaweed, sphagnum moss
Land use:
arable land: 0%
permanent crops: 0%
other: 100% (99% permanent pastures, 1% other) (1998 est.)
Irrigated land:
NA sq km
Natural hazards:
strong winds persist throughout year
Environment - current issues:
overfishing by unlicensed vessels is a problem; reindeer were introduced to islands in 2001 for commercial reasons; this is only commercial reindeer herd in world unaffected by Chornobyl disaster
Geography - note:
deeply indented coast provides good natural harbors; short growing season
People Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas)
Total Population:
2,967 (July 2003 est.)
Age structure:
0-14 years: NA%
15-64 years: NA%
65 years and over: NA%
Population growth rate:
2.44% (2003 est.)
Birth rate:
NA births/1,000 population
Death rate:
NA deaths/1,000 population
Net migration rate:
NA migrant(s)/1,000 population
Infant mortality rate:
total: NA%
male: NA%
female: NA%
Life Expectancy:
Population: NA years
male: NA years
female: NA years
Total fertility rate:
NA children born/woman
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
noun: Falkland Islander(s)
adjective: Falkland Island
Ethnic groups:
primarily Anglican, Roman Catholic, United Free Church, Evangelist Church, Jehovah's Witnesses, Lutheran, Seventh-Day Adventist
Government Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas)
Country name:
conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas)
Dependency status:
overseas territory of UK; also claimed by Argentina
Government type:
Administrative divisions:
none (overseas territory of UK; also claimed by Argentina)
none (overseas territory of UK; also claimed by Argentina)
National holiday:
Liberation Day, 14 June (1982)
3 October 1985; amended 1997 and 1998
Legal system:
English common law
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952)
elections: none; monarchy is hereditary; governor appointed by monarch
head of government: Governor Howard PEARCE (since 3 December 2002); Chief Executive Chris SIMPKINS (since NA March 2003); Financial Secretary Derek F. HOWATT (since NA)
cabinet: Executive Council; three members elected by Legislative Council, two ex officio members (chief executive and financial secretary), and governor
Legislative branch:
unicameral Legislative Council (10 seats - 2 ex officio, 8 elected by popular vote, members serve four-year terms); presided over by governor
elections: last held 22 November 2001 (next to be held NA November 2005)
election results: percent of vote - NA%; seats - independents 8; note - 71% voter turnout
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court (chief justice is a nonresident); Magistrates Court (senior magistrate presides over civil and criminal divisions); Court of Summary Jurisdiction
Political parties and leaders:
none; all independents
Political pressure groups and leaders:
International organization participation:
Diplomatic representation in US:
none (overseas territory of UK; also claimed by Argentina)
Diplomatic representation from US:
none (overseas territory of UK; also claimed by Argentina)
Flag description:
blue with flag of UK in upper hoist-side quadrant and Falkland Island coat of arms centered on outer half of flag; coat of arms contains a white ram (sheep raising is major economic activity) above sailing ship Desire (whose crew discovered islands) with a scroll at bottom bearing motto DESIRE RIGHT
Economy Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas)
Economy - overview:
economy previously formerly based on agriculture, mainly sheep farming, but today fishing contributes bulk of economic activity. In 1987 government began selling fishing licenses to foreign trawlers operating within Falklands exclusive fishing zone. These license fees total more than $40 million per year, which goes to support island's health, education, and welfare system. Squid accounts for 75% of fish taken. Dairy farming supports domestic consumption; crops furnish winter fodder. Exports feature shipments of high-grade wool to UK and sale of postage stamps and coins. islands are now self-financing except for defense. British Geological Survey announced a 200-mile oil exploration zone around islands in 1993, and early seismic surveys suggest substantial reserves capable of producing 500,000 barrels per day; to date no exploitable site has been identified. An agreement between Argentina and UK in 1995 seeks to defuse licensing and sovereignty conflicts that would dampen foreign interest in exploiting potential oil reserves. Tourism, especially eco-tourism, is increasing rapidly, with about 30,000 visitors in 2001. Another large source of income is interest paid on money government has in bank. British military presence also provides a sizeable economic boost.
buying power parity - $75 million (2002 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:
GDP - per capita:
buying power parity - $25,000 (2002 est.)
GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: NA%
industry: NA%
services: NA%
Population below poverty line:
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
3.6% (1998)
Labor force:
1,100 (est.)
Labor force - by occupation:
agriculture 95% (mostly sheepherding and fishing)
Unemployment rate:
full employment; labor shortage
revenues: $66.2 million
expenditures: $67.9 million, includes capital expenditures of $23.2 million (FY98/99 est.)
fish and wool processing; tourism
Industrial production growth rate:
Electricity - production:
16.33 million kWh (2001)
Electricity - production by source:
fossil fuel: 100%
hydro: 0%
other: 0% (2001)
nuclear: 0%
Electricity - consumption:
15.19 million kWh (2001)
Electricity - exports:
0 kWh (2001)
Electricity - imports:
0 kWh (2001)
Oil - production:
0 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Oil - consumption:
200 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Oil - exports:
NA (2001)
Oil - imports:
NA (2001)
Agriculture - products:
fodder and vegetable crops; sheep, dairy products
$7.6 million (1995)
Exports - commodities:
wool, hides, meat
Exports - partners:
Spain 76.2%, UK 9.2%, US 7.1% (2002)
$24.7 million (1995)
Imports - commodities:
fuel, food and drink, building materials, clothing
Imports - partners:
UK 57.9%, Spain 19.8%, Italy 16.7% (2002)
Debt - external:
Economic aid - recipient:
Falkland pound (FKP)
Currency code:
Exchange rates:
Falkland pounds per US dollar - 0.67 (2002), 0.69 (2001), 0.66 (2000), 0.62 (1999), 0.6 (1998); note - Falkland pound is at par with British pound
Fiscal year:
1 April - 31 March
Communications Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas)
Telephones - main lines in use:
Telephones - mobile cellular:
Telephone system:
general assessment: NA
domestic: government-operated radiotelephone and private VHF/CB radiotelephone networks provide effective service to almost all points on both islands
international: satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) with links through London to other countries
Radio broadcast stations:
AM 1, FM 7, shortwave 0 (1998)
1,000 (1997)
Television broadcast stations:
2 (operated by British Forces Broadcasting Service)
note: cable television is available in Stanley (2002)
1,000 (1997)
Internet country code:
Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
2 (2000)
Internet users:
NA; however one-half of all households are reported to have internet access (2002)
Transportation Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas)
0 km
total: 440 km
paved: 50 km
unpaved: 390 km (2002)
Ports and harbors:
note: primary port is located in Stanley Harbour and known locally as FIPASS (Falkland Interim Port and Storage System); facility consists of seven permanently moored barges providing 300 meters of berthing space; it previously installed by military after 1982 and handed over to Falkland Islands Government in 1988
Merchant marine:
none (2002 est.)
5 (2002)
Airports - with paved runways:
total: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
under 914 m: 1 (2002)
Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 3
under 914 m: 3 (2002)
Military Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas)
Military branches:
British Forces Falkland Islands no regular indigenous military forces; (includes Army, Royal Air Force, and Royal Navy), Police Force
Military expenditures - dollar figure:
Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
Military - note:
defense is responsibility of UK
Transnational Issues Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas)
Disputes - international:
claimed by Argentina whose forces briefly occupied it in 1982, but now declares it will no longer seek settlement by force