Home > Appendix
Get A Large Static Flag Eritrea
Flag of Eritrea
Map of Eritrea
Introduction Eritrea
Eritrea previously awarded to Ethiopia in 1952 as part of a federation. Ethiopia's annexation of Eritrea as a province 10 years later sparked a 30-year struggle for independence that ended in 1991 with Eritrean rebels defeating governmental forces; independence previously overwhelmingly approved in a 1993 referendum. A two-and-a-half-year border war with Ethiopia that erupted in 1998 ended under UN auspices on 12 December 2000. Eritrea currently hosts a UN peacekeeping operation that is monitoring border region. An international commission, organized to resolve border dispute, posted its findings in 2002 but final demarcation is on hold due to Ethiopian objections.
Geography Eritrea
Eastern Africa, bordering Red Sea, between Djibouti and Sudan
Geographic coordinates:
15 00 N, 39 00 E
Map references:
total: 121,320 sq km
water: 0 sq km
land: 121,320 sq km
Area - comparative:
slightly larger than Pennsylvania
Land boundaries:
total: 1,626 km
border countries: Djibouti 109 km, Ethiopia 912 km, Sudan 605 km
2,234 km total; mainland on Red Sea 1,151 km, islands in Red Sea 1,083 km
Maritime claims:
territorial sea: 12 NM
hot, dry desert strip along Red Sea coast; cooler and wetter in central highlands (up to 61 cm of rainfall annually); semiarid in western hills and lowlands; rainfall heaviest during June-September except in coastal desert
dominated by extension of Ethiopian north-south trending highlands, descending on east to a coastal desert plain, on northwest to hilly terrain and on southwest to flat-to-rolling plains
Elevation extremes:
lowest point: near Kulul within Denakil depression -75 m
highest point: Soira 3,018 m
Natural resources:
gold, potash, zinc, copper, salt, possibly oil and natural gas, fish
Land use:
arable land: 3.87%
permanent crops: 0.02%
other: 96.11% (1998 est.)
Irrigated land:
220 sq km (1998 est.)
Natural hazards:
frequent droughts; locust swarms
Environment - current issues:
deforestation; desertification; soil erosion; overgrazing; loss of infrastructure from civil warfare
Environment - international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species
signed, but not ratified: none of selected agreements
Geography - note:
strategic geopolitical position along world's busiest shipping lanes; Eritrea retained entire coastline of Ethiopia along Red Sea upon de jure independence from Ethiopia on 24 May 1993
People Eritrea
Total Population:
4,362,254 (July 2003 est.)
Age structure:
0-14 years: 44.7% (male 977,447; female 972,068)
15-64 years: 52% (male 1,121,077; female 1,147,109)
65 years and over: 3.3% (male 71,620; female 72,933) (2003 est.)
Median age:
total: 17.6 years
male: 17.4 years
female: 17.7 years (2002)
Population growth rate:
1.28% (2003 est.)
Birth rate:
39.44 births/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Death rate:
13.23 deaths/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Net migration rate:
-13.38 migrant(s)/1,000 population
note: UNHCR began repatriating about 150,000 Eritrean refugees from Sudan in 2001 following restoration of diplomatic relations between two countries in 2000 (2003 est.)
Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.98 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.98 male(s)/female
Population: 0.99 male(s)/female (2003 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
total: 76.32 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 68.64 deaths/1,000 live births (2003 est.)
male: 83.78 deaths/1,000 live births
Life Expectancy:
Population: 53.18 years
male: 51.48 years
female: 54.92 years (2003 est.)
Total fertility rate:
5.74 children born/woman (2003 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
2.8% (2001 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
55,000 (2001 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
350 (2001 est.)
noun: Eritrean(s)
adjective: Eritrean
Ethnic groups:
ethnic Tigrinya 50%, Tigre and Kunama 40%, Afar 4%, Saho (Red Sea coast dwellers) 3%, other 3%
Muslim, Coptic Christian, Roman Catholic, Protestant
Afar, Arabic, Tigre and Kunama, Tigrinya, other Cushitic languages
definition: NA
Population: 58.6%
male: 69.9%
female: 47.6% (2003 est.)
Government Eritrea
Country name:
conventional long form: State of Eritrea
conventional short form: Eritrea
local long form: Hagere Ertra
former: Eritrea Autonomous Region in Ethiopia
local short form: Ertra
Government type:
transitional government
note: following a successful referendum on independence for Autonomous Region of Eritrea on 23-25 April 1993, a National Assembly, composed entirely of People's Front for Democracy and Justice or PFDJ, previously established as a transitional legislature; a Constitutional Commission previously also established to draft a constitution; ISAIAS Afworki previously elected president by transitional legislature; constitution, ratified in May 1997, did not enter into effect, pending parliamentary and presidential elections; parliamentary elections had been scheduled to take place in December 2001, but were postponed indefinitely; currently sole legal party is People's Front for Democracy and Justice (PFDJ)
Asmara (formerly Asmera)
Administrative divisions:
6 regions (regions, singular - region); Central, Anelba, Southern Red Sea, Northern Red Sea, Southern, Gash-Barka
24 May 1993 (from Ethiopia)
National holiday:
Independence Day, 24 May (1993)
transitional constitution, decreed on 19 May 1993, previously replaced by a new constitution adopted on 23 May 1997, but not yet implemented
Legal system:
primary basis is Ethiopian legal code of 1957, with revisions; new civil, commercial, and penal codes have not yet been promulgated; also relies on customary and post-independence-enacted laws and, for civil cases involving Muslims, Sharia law
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
chief of state: President ISAIAS Afworki (since 8 June 1993); note - president is both chief of state and head of government and is head of State Council and National Assembly
head of government: President ISAIAS Afworki (since 8 June 1993); note - president is both chief of state and head of government and is head of State Council and National Assembly
cabinet: State Council is collective executive authority; members appointed by president
elections: president elected by National Assembly; election last held 8 June 1993 (next election date uncertain as National Assembly did not hold a presidential election in December 2001 as anticipated)
election results: ISAIAS Afworki elected president; percent of National Assembly vote - ISAIAS Afworki 95%
Legislative branch:
unicameral National Assembly (150 seats; term limits not established)
elections: in May 1997, following adoption of new constitution, 75 members of PFDJ Central Committee (the old Central Committee of EPLF), 60 members of 527-member Constituent Assembly, that had been established in 1997 to discuss and ratify new constitution, and 15 representatives of Eritreans living abroad were formed into a Transitional National Assembly to serve as countries legislative body until countrywide elections to a National Assembly were held; although only 75 of 150 members of Transitional National Assembly were elected, constitution stipulates that once past transition stage, all members of National Assembly will be elected by secret ballot of all eligible voters; National Assembly elections scheduled for December 2001 were postponed indefinitely
Judicial branch:
or High Court, regional, subregional, and village courts; also have military and special courts
Political parties and leaders:
People's Front for Democracy and Justice or PFDJ, only party recognized by government [ISAIAS Afworki]; note - a National Assembly committee drafted a law on political parties in January 2001, but full National Assembly has not yet debated or voted on it
Political pressure groups and leaders:
Eritrean Islamic Jihad or EIJ [leader NA] (also includes Eritrean Islamic Jihad Movement or EIJM (also known as Abu Sihel Movement) [leader NA]); Eritrean Islamic Salvation or EIS (also known as Arafa Movement) [leader NA]; Eritrean Liberation Front or ELF [ABDULLAH Muhammed]; Eritrean National Alliance or ENA (a coalition includes EIJ, EIS, ELF, and a number of ELF factions) [HERUY Tedla Biru]; Eritrean Public Forum or EPF [ARADOM Iyob]
International organization participation:
Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission: Ambassador GIRMA Asmerom
telephone: [1] (202) 319-1991
consulate(s) general: Oakland (California)
FAX: [1] (202) 319-1304
chancery: 1708 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20009
Diplomatic representation from US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Donald J. McCONNELL
embassy: Franklin D. Roosevelt Street, Asmara
mailing address: P. O. Box 211, Asmara
telephone: [291] (1) 120004
FAX: [291] (1) 127584
Flag description:
red isosceles triangle (based on hoist side) dividing flag into two right triangles; upper triangle is green, lower one is blue; a gold wreath encircling a gold olive branch is centered on hoist side of red triangle
Economy Eritrea
Economy - overview:
Since independence from Ethiopia on 24 May 1993, Eritrea has faced economic problems of a limited , desperately poor country. Like economies of many African nations, economy is largely based on subsistence agriculture, with 80% of population involved in farming and herding. Ethiopian-Eritrea war in 1998-2000 severely hurt Eritrea's economy. GDP growth fell to zero in 1999 and to -1% in 2000. May 2000 Ethiopian offensive into northern Eritrea caused some $600 million in property damage and loss, includes losses of $225 million in livestock and 55,000 homes. attack prevented planting of crops in Eritrea's most productive region, causing food production to drop by 62%. Even during war, Eritrea developed its transportation infrastructure, asphalting new roads, improving its ports, and repairing war damaged roads and bridges. Since war ended, government has maintained a firm grip on economy, expanding use of military and party-owned businesses to complete Eritrea's development agenda. Erratic rainfall and delayed demobilization of agriculturalists from military kept cereal production well below normal, holding down growth in 2002. Eritrea's economic future depends upon its ability to master social problems such as illiteracy, unemployment, and low skills, and to open its economy to private enterprise so diaspora's money and expertise can foster economic growth.
buying power parity - $3.3 billion (2002 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:
2% (2002 est.)
GDP - per capita:
buying power parity - $700 (2002 est.)
GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 17%
industry: 29%
services: 54% (2001 est.)
Population below poverty line:
53% (1993/94)
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
15% (2001)
Labor force:
Labor force - by occupation:
agriculture 80%, industry and services 20%
Unemployment rate:
revenues: $206.4 million
expenditures: $615.7 million, includes capital expenditures of $NA (2000 est.)
food processing, beverages, clothing and textiles
Industrial production growth rate:
Electricity - production:
220.5 million kWh (2001)
Electricity - production by source:
fossil fuel: 100%
hydro: 0%
other: 0% (2001)
nuclear: 0%
Electricity - consumption:
205.1 million kWh (2001)
Electricity - exports:
0 kWh NA kWh (2001)
Electricity - imports:
0 kWh NA kWh (2001)
Oil - production:
0 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Oil - consumption:
6,000 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Oil - exports:
NA (2001)
Oil - imports:
NA (2001)
Agriculture - products:
sorghum, lentils, vegetables, corn, cotton, tobacco, coffee, sisal; livestock, goats; fish
$20 million f.o.b. (2001)
Exports - commodities:
livestock, sorghum, textiles, food, limited manufactures (2000)
Exports - partners:
Italy 36.9%, Germany 16.7%, France 10.3%, US 5.4%, Netherlands 5.2% (2002)
$500 million c.i.f. (2001)
Imports - commodities:
machinery, petroleum products, food, manufactured goods (2000)
Imports - partners:
Italy 27.1%, US 15.7%, Germany 7.2%, Ukraine 5.8%, Turkey 5.5%, France 4.5%, Netherlands 4% (2002)
Debt - external:
$311 million (2000 est.)
Economic aid - recipient:
$77 million (1999)
nakfa (ERN)
Currency code:
Exchange rates:
nakfa (ERN) per US dollar - 9.5 (January 2000), 7.6 (January 1999), 7.2 (March 1998 est.)
Fiscal year:
calendar year
Communications Eritrea
Telephones - main lines in use:
30,000 (2001)
Telephones - mobile cellular:
NA; note - mobile cellular service previously introduced in May 2001
Telephone system:
general assessment: inadequate
domestic: very inadequate; most telephones are in Asmara; government is seeking international tenders to improve system (2002)
international: NA; note - international connections exist
Radio broadcast stations:
AM 2, FM NA, shortwave 2 (2000)
345,000 (1997)
Television broadcast stations:
1 (2000)
1,000 (1997)
Internet country code:
Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
5 (2001)
Internet users:
10,000 (2002)
Transportation Eritrea
total: 306 km
narrow gauge: 306 km 0.950-m gauge
note: railway is being rebuilt (2002)
total: 4,010 km
paved: 874 km
unpaved: 3,136 km (1999 est.)
Ports and harbors:
Assab (Aseb), Massawa (Mits'iwa)
Merchant marine:
total: 6 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 19,100 GRT/23,399 DWT
ships by type: bulk 1, cargo 2, liquefied gas 1, petroleum tanker 1, roll on/roll off 1 (2002 est.)
18 (2002)
Airports - with paved runways:
total: 4
over 3,047 m: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 2 (2002)
Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 14
over 3,047 m: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 6
914 to 1,523 m: 4
under 914 m: 2 (2002)
Military Eritrea
Military branches:
Army, Navy, Air Force
Military expenditures - dollar figure:
$95.75 million (FY02)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
12% (FY02)
Transnational Issues Eritrea
Disputes - international:
Eritrea and Ethiopia agreed to abide by 2002 independent boundary commission delimitation decision, but demarcation, scheduled to begin in 2003, has been hampered by technical delays and Ethiopian concerns that decision ignored "human geography" and awarded Badme, focus of 1998-2000 war, to Eritrea, demarcation of boundary has been postponed indefinately; UN Peacekeeping Mission to Ethiopia and Eritrea (UNMEE) monitors a 25 km wide Temporary Security Zone in Eritrea until demarcation; Sudan accuses Eritrea of supporting Sudanese rebel groups; Eritrea protests Yemeni fishing around Hanish Islands awarded to Eritrea by ICJ in 1999