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Introduction Cambodia
Following a five-year struggle, Communist Khmer Rouge forces captured Phnom Penh in 1975 and ordered evacuation of all cities and towns; over 1 million displaced people died from execution or enforced hardships. A 1978 Vietnamese invasion drove Khmer Rouge into countryside and touched off almost 20 years of fighting. UN-sponsored elections in 1993 helped restore some semblance of normalcy as did rapid diminishment of Khmer Rouge in mid-1990s. A coalition government, formed after national elections in 1998, brought renewed political stability and surrender of remaining Khmer Rouge forces in 1998.
Geography Cambodia
Southeastern Asia, bordering Gulf of Thailand, between Thailand, Vietnam, and Laos
Geographic coordinates:
13 00 N, 105 00 E
Map references:
Southeast Asia
total: 181,040 sq km
land: 176,520 sq km
water: 4,520 sq km
Area - comparative:
slightly smaller than Oklahoma
Land boundaries:
total: 2,572 km
border countries: Laos 541 km, Thailand 803 km, Vietnam 1,228 km
443 km
Maritime claims:
contiguous zone: 24 NM
territorial sea: 12 NM
continental shelf: 200 NM
exclusive economic zone: 200 NM
tropical; rainy, monsoon season (May to November); dry season (December to April); little seasonal temperature variation
mostly low, flat plains; mountains in southwest and north
Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Gulf of Thailand 0 m
highest point: Phnum Aoral 1,810 m
Natural resources:
timber, gemstones, some iron ore, manganese, phosphates, hydropower potential
Land use:
arable land: 20.96%
permanent crops: 0.61%
other: 78.43% (1998 est.)
Irrigated land:
2,700 sq km (1998 est.)
Natural hazards:
monsoonal rains (June to November); flooding; occasional droughts
Environment - current issues:
illegal logging activities throughout country and strip mining for gems in western region along border with Thailand have resulted in habitat loss and declining biodiversity (in particular, destruction of mangrove swamps threatens natural fisheries); soil erosion; in rural areas, a majority of population does not have access to potable water; toxic waste delivery from Taiwan sparked unrest in Kampong Saom (Sihanoukville) in December 1998
Environment - international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Law of Sea, Marine Dumping
Geography - note:
a land of paddies and forests dominated by Mekong River and Tonle Sap
People Cambodia
Total Population:
note: estimates for this country take into account effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality and death rates, lower population and growth rates, and changes in distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2003 est.)
Age structure:
0-14 years: 39.3% (male 2,606,568; female 2,557,736)
15-64 years: 57.6% (male 3,599,216; female 3,962,520)
65 years and over: 3.1% (male 148,287; female 250,437) (2003 est.)
Median age:
total: 19.2 years
male: 18.4 years
female: 20 years (2002)
Population growth rate:
1.8% (2003 est.)
Birth rate:
27.28 births/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Death rate:
9.26 deaths/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Net migration rate:
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.91 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.59 male(s)/female
Population: 0.94 male(s)/female (2003 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
total: 75.94 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 66.51 deaths/1,000 live births (2003 est.)
male: 84.96 deaths/1,000 live births
Life Expectancy:
Population: 57.92 years
male: 55.49 years
female: 60.47 years (2003 est.)
Total fertility rate:
3.58 children born/woman (2003 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
2.7% (2001 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
170,000 (2001 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
12,000 (2001 est.)
noun: Cambodian(s)
adjective: Cambodian
Ethnic groups:
Khmer 90%, Vietnamese 5%, Chinese 1%, other 4%
Theravada Buddhist 95%, other 5%
Khmer (official) 95%, French, English
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
Population: 69.9%
male: 80.5%
female: 60.3% (2003 est.)
Government Cambodia
Country name:
conventional long form: Kingdom of Cambodia
conventional short form: Cambodia
local short form: Kampuchea
local long form: Preahreacheanachakr Kampuchea
former: Khmer Republic, Kampuchea Republic
Government type:
multiparty democracy under a constitutional monarchy established in September 1993
Phnom Penh
Administrative divisions:
20 provinces (khett, singular and plural) and 4 municipalities* (krong, singular and plural); Banteay Mean Cheay, Batdambang, Kampong Cham, Kampong Chhnang, Kampong Spoe, Kampong Thum, Kampot, Kandal, Kaoh Kong, Keb*, Kracheh, Mondol Kiri, Otdar Mean Cheay, Pailin*, Phnum Penh*, Pouthisat, Preah Seihanu*, Preah Vihear, Prey Veng, Rotanah Kiri, Siem Reab, Stoeng Treng, Svay Rieng, Takev
9 November 1953 (from France)
National holiday:
Independence Day, 9 November (1953)
promulgated 21 September 1993
Legal system:
primarily a civil law mixture of French-influenced codes from United Nations Transitional Authority in Cambodia (UNTAC) period, royal decrees, and acts of legislature, with influences of customary law and remnants of communist legal theory; increasing influence of common law in recent years
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
chief of state: King Norodom SIHANOUK (reinstated 24 September 1993)
head of government: Prime Minister HUN SEN (since 30 November 1998) and Deputy Prime Ministers SAR KHENG (since 1993) and TOL LAH (since 1998)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by monarch
elections: none; monarch is chosen by a Royal Throne Council; following legislative elections, a member of majority party or majority coalition is named prime minister by Chairman of National Assembly and appointed by king
Legislative branch:
bicameral consists of National Assembly (122 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms) and Senate (61 seats; two members appointed by monarch, two elected by National Assembly, and 57 elected by "functional constituencies"; members serve five-year terms)
elections: National Assembly - last held 27 July 2003 (next to be held in July 2007); Senate - last held 2 March 1999 (next to be held in 2004)
election results: National Assembly - percent of vote by party - CPP 47%, SRP 22%, FUNCINPEC 21%, other 10%; seats by party - CPP 73, FUNCINPEC 26, SRP 24; Senate - percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - CPP 31, FUNCINPEC 21, SRP 7, other 2 (2003)
Judicial branch:
Supreme Council of Magistracy (provided for in constitution and formed in December 1997); Supreme Court (and lower courts) exercises judicial authority
Political parties and leaders:
Buddhist Liberal Party or BLP [IENG MOULY]; Cambodian Pracheachon Party or Cambodian People's Party or CPP [CHEA SIM]; Khmer Citizen Party or KCP [NGUON SOEUR]; National United Front for an Independent, Neutral, Peaceful, and Cooperative Cambodia or FUNCINPEC [Prince NORODOM RANARIDDH]; Sam Rangsi Party or SRP (formerly Khmer Nation Party or KNP) [SAM RANGSI]
Political pressure groups and leaders:
International organization participation:
Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission: Ambassador ROLAND ENG
FAX: [1] (202) 726-8381
telephone: [1] (202) 726-7742
chancery: 4530 16th Street NW, Washington, DC 20011
Diplomatic representation from US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Charles Aaron RAY
embassy: 27 EO Street 240, Phnom Penh
mailing address: Box P, APO AP 96546
telephone: [855] (23) 216-436/438
FAX: [855] (23) 216-437/811
Flag description:
three horizontal bands of blue (top), red (double width), and blue with a white three-towered temple representing Angkor Wat outlined in black in center of red band
Economy Cambodia
Economy - overview:
Cambodia's economy slowed dramatically in 1997-1998 due to regional economic crisis, civil violence, and political infighting. Foreign investment and tourism fell off. In 1999, first full year of peace in 30 years, progress previously made on economic reforms and growth resumed at 5.0%. Despite severe flooding, GDP grew at 5.0% in 2000, 6.3% in 2001, and 5.2% in 2002. Tourism previously Cambodia's fastest growing industry, with arrivals up 34% in 2000 and up another 40% in 2001 before September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks in US. Even given these stout growth estimates, long-term development of economy after decades of war remains a daunting challenge. population lacks education and productive skills, particularly in poverty-ridden countryside, which suffers from an almost total lack of basic infrastructure. Fear of renewed political instability and corruption within government discourage foreign investment and delay foreign aid. government is addressing these issues with assistance from bilateral and multilateral donors.
buying power parity - $20.42 billion (2002 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:
4.5% (2002 est.)
GDP - per capita:
buying power parity - $1,600 (2002 est.)
GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 40%
industry: 20%
services: 40% (2001 est.)
Population below poverty line:
36% (1997 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: 2.9%
highest 10%: 33.8% (1997)
Distribution of family income - Gini index:
40.4 (1997)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
3.3% (2002 est.)
Labor force:
6 million (1998 est.)
Labor force - by occupation:
agriculture 80% (2001 est.)
Unemployment rate:
2.8% (1999 est.)
revenues: $396 million
expenditures: $607 million, includes capital expenditures of $254 million (2001 est.)
tourism, garments, rice milling, fishing, wood and wood products, rubber, cement, gem mining, textiles
Industrial production growth rate:
16% (2001 est.)
Electricity - production:
119 million kWh (2001)
Electricity - production by source:
fossil fuel: 65%
hydro: 35%
other: 0% (2001)
nuclear: 0%
Electricity - consumption:
110.6 million kWh (2001)
Electricity - exports:
0 kWh (2001)
Electricity - imports:
0 kWh (2001)
Oil - production:
0 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Oil - consumption:
3,600 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Oil - exports:
NA (2001)
Oil - imports:
NA (2001)
Agriculture - products:
rice, rubber, corn, vegetables
$1.38 billion f.o.b. (2001 est.)
Exports - commodities:
timber, garments, rubber, rice, fish
Exports - partners:
US 60.2%, Germany 9.1%, UK 7.1%, Singapore 4.4% (2002)
$1.73 billion f.o.b. (2001 est.)
Imports - commodities:
petroleum products, cigarettes, gold, construction materials, machinery, motor vehicles
Imports - partners:
Thailand 24.8%, Singapore 16.9%, China 12.1%, Hong Kong 10.9%, South Korea 5.5%, Vietnam 5.2% (2002)
Debt - external:
$829 million (1999 est.)
Economic aid - recipient:
$548 million pledged in grants and concessional loans for 2001 by international donors
riel (KHR)
Currency code:
Exchange rates:
riels per US dollar - 3,912.08 (2002), 3,916.33 (2001), 3,840.75 (2000), 3,807.83 (1999), 3,744.42 (1998)
Fiscal year:
calendar year
Communications Cambodia
Telephones - main lines in use:
21,800 (mid-1998)
Telephones - mobile cellular:
80,000 (2000)
Telephone system:
general assessment: adequate landline and/or cellular service in Phnom Penh and other provincial cities; rural areas have little telephone service
domestic: NA
international: adequate but expensive landline and cellular service available to all countries from Phnom Penh and major provincial cities; satellite earth station - 1 Intersputnik (Indian Ocean region)
Radio broadcast stations:
AM 7, FM 3, shortwave 3 (1999)
1.34 million (1997)
Television broadcast stations:
6 (2003)
94,000 (1997)
Internet country code:
Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
2 (2000)
Internet users:
10,000 (2002)
Transportation Cambodia
total: 602 km
narrow gauge: 602 km 1.000-m gauge (2002)
total: 12,323 km
paved: 1,996 km
unpaved: 10,327 km (2000 est)
3,700 km
note: navigable all year to craft drawing 0.6 m or less; 282 km navigable to craft drawing as much as 1.8 m
Ports and harbors:
Kampong Saom (Sihanoukville), Kampot, Krong Kaoh Kong, Phnom Penh
Merchant marine:
total: 527 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 2,328,371 GRT/3,294,028 DWT
ships by type: bulk 49, cargo 412, chemical tanker 2, combination bulk 4, container 17, liquefied gas 1, livestock carrier 2, multi-functional large-load carrier 1, passenger/cargo 1, petroleum tanker 18, refrigerated cargo 11, roll on/roll off 7, short-sea passenger 2
note: includes some foreign-owned ships registered here as a flag of convenience: Aruba 1, Belize 11, Bulgaria 3, Cambodia 194, Canada 4, China 25, Cyprus 14, Egypt 10, Estonia 2, France 1, Georgia 1, Germany 1, Gibraltar 1, Greece 13, Honduras 8, Hong Kong 12, Iceland 1, Indonesia 2, Iran 1, Ireland 1, Italy 2, Japan 2, Jordan 1, North Korea, 1, South Korea, 25, Latvia 3, Lebanon 6, Liberia 7, Malaysia 1, Malta 1, Marshall Islands 4, Netherlands 1, Norway 1, Panama 10, Romania 2, Russia 75, Saint Kitts and Nevis 4, Saint Vincent and Grenadines 5, Singapore 17, Syria 20, Turkey 18, Ukraine 16, United Arab Emirates 3, United Kingdom 1, United States 5, Vietnam 3 (2002 est.)
21 (2002)
Airports - with paved runways:
total: 5
2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2002)
Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 16
under 914 m: 1 (2002)
1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
914 to 1,523 m: 13
2 (2002)
Military Cambodia
Military branches:
Royal Cambodian Armed Forces (RCAF): Army, Navy, Air Force
Military manpower - military age:
18 years of age (2003 est.)
Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 3,275,533 (2003 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service:
males age 15-49: 1,829,535 (2003 est.)
Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
males: 165,395 (2003 est.)
Military expenditures - dollar figure:
$112 million (FY01 est.)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
3% (FY01 est.)
Transnational Issues Cambodia
Disputes - international:
completed boundary demarcation with Thailand; accuses Vietnam of moving and destroying boundary markers and encroachments, initiating border incidents; accuses Thailand of preventing access to Preah Vihear temple ruins awarded to Cambodia by ICJ decision in 1962; maritime boundary with Vietnam hampered by dispute over offshore islands
Illicit drugs:
narcotics-related corruption reportedly involving some in government, military, and police; possible limited -scale opium, heroin, and amphetamine production; large producer of cannabis for international market; vulnerable to money laundering due to its cash-based economy and porous borders