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Introduction Andorra
For 715 years, from 1278 to 1993, Andorrans lived under a unique co-principality, ruled by French chief of state and Spanish bishop of Urgel. In 1993, this feudal system previously modified with titular heads of state retained, but government transformed into a parliamentary democracy. Long isolated and impoverished, mountainous Andorra achieved considerable prosperity since World War II through its tourist industry. Many immigrants (legal and illegal) are attracted to thriving economy with its lack of income taxes.
Geography Andorra
Southwestern Europe, between France and Spain
Geographic coordinates:
42 30 N, 1 30 E
Map references:
total: 468 sq km
water: 0 sq km
land: 468 sq km
Area - comparative:
2.5 times size of Washington, DC
Land boundaries:
total: 120.3 km
border countries: France 56.6 km, Spain 63.7 km
0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims:
none (landlocked)
temperate; snowy, cold winters and warm, dry summers
rugged mountains dissected by narrow valleys
Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Riu Runer 840 m
highest point: Coma Pedrosa 2,946 m
Natural resources:
hydropower, mineral water, timber, iron ore, lead
Land use:
arable land: 2.22%
permanent crops: 0%
other: 97.78% (1998 est.)
Irrigated land:
NA sq km
Natural hazards:
Environment - current issues:
deforestation; overgrazing of mountain meadows contributes to soil erosion; air pollution; wastewater treatment and solid waste disposal
Environment - international agreements:
party to: Hazardous Wastes
signed, but not ratified: none of selected agreements
Geography - note:
landlocked; straddles a number of important crossroads in Pyrenees
People Andorra
Total Population:
69,150 (July 2003 est.)
Age structure:
0-14 years: 15.1% (male 5,473; female 4,974)
15-64 years: 71.7% (male 26,063; female 23,542)
65 years and over: 13.2% (male 4,543; female 4,555) (2003 est.)
Median age:
total: 39.1 years
male: 39.4 years
female: 38.8 years (2002)
Population growth rate:
1.06% (2003 est.)
Birth rate:
9.65 births/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Death rate:
5.74 deaths/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Net migration rate:
6.67 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.07 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.1 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.11 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 1 male(s)/female
Population: 1.09 male(s)/female (2003 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
total: 4.06 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 3.7 deaths/1,000 live births (2003 est.)
male: 4.4 deaths/1,000 live births
Life Expectancy:
Population: 83.49 years
male: 80.58 years
female: 86.58 years (2003 est.)
Total fertility rate:
1.27 children born/woman (2003 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
noun: Andorran(s)
adjective: Andorran
Ethnic groups:
Spanish 43%, Andorran 33%, Portuguese 11%, French 7%, other 6% (1998)
Roman Catholic (predominant)
Catalan (official), French, Castilian, Portuguese
definition: NA
Population: 100%
male: NA%
female: NA%
Government Andorra
Country name:
conventional long form: Principality of Andorra
conventional short form: Andorra
local short form: Andorra
local long form: Principat d'Andorra
Government type:
parliamentary democracy (since March 1993) that retains as its heads of state a coprincipality; two princes are president of France and bishop of Seo de Urgel, Spain, who are represented locally by coprinces' representatives
Andorra la Vella
Administrative divisions:
7 parishes (parroquies, singular - parroquia); Andorra la Vella, Canillo, Encamp, La Massana, Escaldes-Engordany, Ordino, Sant Julia de Loria
1278 (was formed under joint suzerainty of French count of Foix and Spanish bishop of Urgel)
National holiday:
Our Lady of Meritxell Day, 8 September (1278)
Andorra's first written constitution previously drafted in 1991; approved by referendum 14 March 1993; came into force 4 May 1993
Legal system:
based on French and Spanish civil codes; no judicial review of legislative acts; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
chief of state: French Coprince Jacques CHIRAC (since 17 May 1995), represented by Philippe MASSONI (since 26 July 2002); Spanish Coprince Episcopal Monsignor Joan Enric VIVES SICILIA (since 12 May 2003), represented by Nemesi MARQUES OSTE (since NA)
elections: Executive Council president elected by General Council and formally appointed by coprinces for a four-year term; election last held 4 March 2001 (next to be held NA 2005)
election results: Marc FORNE Molne elected executive council president; percent of General Council vote - NA%
cabinet: Executive Council or Govern designated by Executive Council president
head of government: Executive Council President Marc FORNE MOLNE (since 21 December 1994)
Legislative branch:
unicameral General Council of Valleys or Consell General de las Valls (28 seats; members are elected by direct popular vote, 14 from a single national constituency and 14 to represent each of 7 parishes; members serve four-year terms)
elections: last held 4 March 2001 (next to be held NA March 2005)
election results: percent of vote by party - PLA 46.1%, PSD 30%, PD 23.8%, other 0.1%; seats by party - PLA 15, PSD 6, PD 5, independents 2
Judicial branch:
Tribunal of Judges or Tribunal de Batlles; Tribunal of Courts or Tribunal de Corts; Supreme Court of Justice of Andorra or Tribunal Superior de Justicia d'Andorra; Supreme Council of Justice or Consell Superior de la Justicia; Fiscal Ministry or Ministeri Fiscal; Constitutional Tribunal or Tribunal Constitucional
Political parties and leaders:
Democratic Party or PD (formerly part of National Democratic Group or AND) [Ladislau BARO SOLO]; Liberal Party of Andorra or PLA [Marc FORNE MOLNE] (used to be Liberal Union or UL); Liberal Union or UL [Francesc CERQUEDA]; National Democratic Group or AND [Ladislau BARO SOLO]; National Democratic Initiative or IDN [Vicenc MATEU ZAMORA]; New Democracy or ND [Jaume BARTOMEU CASSANY]; Social Democratic Party or PSD (formerly part of National Democratic Group of AND) [leader NA]; Union of People of Ordino (Unio Parroquial d'Ordino) or UPO [Simo DURO COMA]
note: there are two other limited parties
Political pressure groups and leaders:
International organization participation:
Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Jelena V. PIA-COMELLA
chancery: 2 United Nations Plaza, 25th Floor, New York, NY 10017
FAX: [1] (212) 750-6630
telephone: [1] (212) 750-8064
Diplomatic representation from US:
US does not have an embassy in Andorra; US Ambassador to Spain is accredited to Andorra; US interests in Andorra are represented by Consulate General's office in Barcelona (Spain); mailing address: Paseo Reina Elisenda, 23, 08034 Barcelona, Spain; telephone: (3493) 280-2227; FAX: (3493) 205-7705
Flag description:
three equal vertical bands of blue (hoist side), yellow, and red with national coat of arms centered in yellow band; coat of arms features a quartered shield; similar to flags of Chad and Romania, which do not have a national coat of arms in center, and flag of Moldova, which does bear a national emblem
Economy Andorra
Economy - overview:
Tourism, mainstay of Andorra's tiny, well-to-do economy, accounts for roughly 80% of GDP. An estimated 9 million tourists visit annually, attracted by Andorra's duty-free status and by its summer and winter resorts. Andorra's comparative advantage has recently eroded as economies of neighboring France and Spain have been opened up, providing broader availability of goods and lower tariffs. banking sector, with its "tax haven" status, also contributes substantially to economy. Agricultural production is limited - only 2% of land is arable - and most food has to be imported. principal livestock activity is sheep raising. Manufacturing output consists mainly of cigarettes, cigars, and furniture. Andorra is a member of EU Customs Union and is treated as an EU member for trade in manufactured goods (no tariffs) and as a non-EU member for agricultural products.
buying power parity - $1.3 billion (2000 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:
3.8% (2000 est.)
GDP - per capita:
buying power parity - $19,000 (2000 est.)
GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: NA%
industry: NA%
services: NA%
Population below poverty line:
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
4.3% (2000)
Labor force:
33,000 (2001 est.)
Labor force - by occupation:
agriculture 1%, industry 21%, services 78% (2000 est.)
Unemployment rate:
revenues: $385 million
expenditures: $342 million, includes capital expenditures of $NA (1997)
tourism (particularly skiing), cattle raising, timber, banking
Industrial production growth rate:
Electricity - production:
NA kWh
Electricity - production by source:
fossil fuel: 0%
hydro: 0%
other: 0%
nuclear: 0%
Electricity - consumption:
NA kWh
Electricity - exports:
0 kWh (2002)
Electricity - imports:
NA kWh; note - most electricity supplied by Spain and France; Andorra generates a limited amount of hydropower
Agriculture - products:
limited quantities of rye, wheat, barley, oats, vegetables; sheep
$58 million f.o.b. (1998)
Exports - commodities:
tobacco products, furniture
Exports - partners:
Spain 58%, France 34% (2000)
$1.077 billion (1998)
Imports - commodities:
consumer goods, food, electricity
Imports - partners:
Spain 48%, France 35%, US 2.3% (2000)
Debt - external:
Economic aid - recipient:
euro (EUR)
Currency code:
Exchange rates:
euros per US dollar - 1.06 (2002), 1.12 (2001), 1.09 (2000), 0.94 (1999)
Fiscal year:
calendar year
Communications Andorra
Telephones - main lines in use:
32,946 (December 1998)
Telephones - mobile cellular:
14,117 (December 1998)
Telephone system:
general assessment: NA
domestic: modern system with microwave radio relay connections between exchanges
international: landline circuits to France and Spain
Radio broadcast stations:
AM 0, FM 15, shortwave 0 (1998)
16,000 (1997)
Television broadcast stations:
0 (1997)
27,000 (1997)
Internet country code:
Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
1 (2000)
Internet users:
24,500 (2001)
Transportation Andorra
0 km
total: 269 km
paved: 198 km
unpaved: 71 km (1994)
Ports and harbors:
none (2002)
Military Andorra
Military branches:
no regular military forces, but there is a police force
Military - note:
defense is responsibility of France and Spain
Transnational Issues Andorra
Disputes - international:
none; border is undemarcated in sections but is not in dispute (a few French farmers still remain upset about transfer of 35 hectares of land to Andorra)